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2015年同等学力申硕真题
2019年同等学力英语语法专项复习—非谓语动词作定语和状语
作者:佚名   来源:本站原创  日期:2018-6-22 7:59:27  点击数:22465

一、总述非谓语动词是指动词不定式、动名词和分词。它们是动词的非限定形式。在句子中起着一些特殊的作用。一般来说,动词不定式可充当除谓语以外的其他各种成分;动名词只可作句子的主语、定语、表语、宾语和补语;分词只能作定语、表语、状语及补语。即使是作同一种成分,不同非谓语形式之间仍然存在差异。不定式作状语时,可表示目的、原因、结果和方式等;分词作状语不仅可表示原因、结果方式,还可以表示时间、条件、伴随情况及让步等。因此考生在做题时应分析状语表达的是何种意思,才能做也正确的选择。
非谓语动词的时态、语态的表达形式见下表:

    
 

二、重要考点

1. 动词不定式
不定式是指带to 的动词原形(使用中有时不带to),在句中起形容词或副词的作用,可以作定语和状语。
A. 作定语
(1) 动词不定式与其修饰的词之间往往有动宾关系,如果该不定式是不及物动词,其后有必要的介词。例如:
Hes a pleasant fellow to work with.
There
s nothing to worry about.
(2) 
有些名词后常跟不定式作定语。例如:time, reason, chance, right, ability, willingness, need, anxiety, wish, plan 等。例如:

Women should have the right to receive education.
There is no time to hesitate.
(3) the first, the second, the last, the best 
等之后用不定式作定语。例如:
The monitor will be the first to come.
He was the last man to blame.
B. 
作状语
(1) 作目的状语不定式作状语时,其动作发生在谓语动词之后,一般置于句子末尾。但是,如果表示强调,亦可置于句首。其否定形式为:在不定式符号前加not。例如:
He went to Shanghai to visit his parents.
To save the earth, we must prevent the earth from being polluted.
I shut the door quietly, so as not to wake the baby.
(2) 
作结果状语。例如:
We came home after our holiday to find our garden neat and tidy.
She left home, never to return again.
(3) 
作原因状语
不定式作原因状语时,一般放在句子末尾。例如:
She burst into laughter to see his funny action.
The boy was shocked to see the frightening scene.
(4) 
有些固定词组带to 不定式,表明说话人的立场或态度,在句子中作独立成分。这些词有:to be honest, to begin with, to cut a long story short, to get (back) to the point, not to make much of it, to put it another way, to tell the truth 等。例如:
To tell you the truth, I have never been to Beijing.
To be honest, I have never heard of Winston Churchill.


2. 动名词
动名词也是动词的一种非限定形式,由动词原形加词尾-ing 构成。与现在分词构成法相同。它同时具有动词及名词特征。以下主要介绍其作定语及状语的情况。
A. 作定语。例如:
None is allowed to smoke in the waiting room.
The speeding car came to a stop all of a sudden.
B. 
作状语
介词 + 动名词可以作状语用,表示时间、原因、目的、让步、方式等。例如:
After finishing the job, he went home.
He was blamed for having done something wrong.
They went to 
Manchester with the object of winning the World Championship.
3. 
分词
分词是动词的三种非限定形式之一,分词有现在分词和过去分词两种。分词可以在句中作状语及定语。
A. 现在分词与过去分词的用法区别
现在分词与过去分词的用法区别主要表现在语态和时间概念上。在语态上,现在分词(除被动式外)表示主动意思,过去分词表示被动意思。在时间上,现在分词表示动作正在进行,过去分词则表示动作已完成。例如:
developing countries               developed countries
the touching tale the                touched audience
B. 
现在分词的用法
现在分词可在句中作定语和状语。
(1) 作定语
现在分词作定语时多置于它所修饰的名词前。例如:
This is a pressing question.
He asked an embarrassing question. 

现在分词亦可置于它所修饰的名词之后。例如:
There were no soldiers drilling. 
现在分词短语一般皆置于其修饰的名词之后;例如:
A little child learning to walk often falls.
The men working here are all from the rural areas.
(2) 
现在分词用作状语
现在分词及其短语从表意的角度看,也可用作状语,表示时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况等。其动作可能发生在谓语动词之前或之后,也可能与谓语动词的动作同时发生。
a. 表示时间。例如:
Climbing to the top of the tower, we saw a magnificent view.
He went out shutting the door behind him. 

强调与谓语动词的动作同时发生时,现在分词之前可用连词when while。例如:
When leaving the airport, they waved again and again to us.
While flying over the Channel, the pilot saw what he thought to be a meteorite.
b. 
表示原因。例如:
Being sick, I stayed at home.
She caught cold sitting on the grass.


c. 表示条件。例如:

Adopting this method, we will raise the average yield by 40 percent.
Turning to the right, you will find a path leading to his cottage.
d. 
表示让步。例如:

Admitting what she has said, I still think that she hasnt tried her best.
e. 
表示结果。例如:

It rained heavily, causing severe flooding in that country.
It rained for two weeks on end, completely ruining our holiday.
f. 
表示方式或伴随情况。例如:
He ran up to her breathing heavily.
Please fill in the form, giving your name, address, etc.


C.  过去分词的作用
(1) 作定语
过去分词可以作定语。如果是单词,常置于其所修饰的名词之前。例如:
    Did you pay a visit to the tomb of the unknown soldier?
(2) 
作状语
过去分词从表意的角度看也可以用作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况等。
a. 表示时间。例如:
   Heated, the metals expands.
    When seen through a telescope, the sun appears darker near the edge.
b.
表示原因。例如:
Born and bred in the countryside, he was bewildered by the big city.
Overcome with surprise, she was unable to utter a word.
c. 
表示条件。例如:
United, we stand; divided, we fall.
Given more time, I
ll do it better.
d. 
表示让步。例如:

Considered as a building material, wood is not very strong.
 Badly involved in the accident, the car is still running.
e. 
表示方式或伴随。例如:
He came back, utterly exhausted.
United as one, the people of the whole country are striving for greater successes in socialist construction.

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