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   学苑教育 > 同等学力 > 历年真题 > 英语 > 正文
1998年同等学力英语真题及答案
作者:佚名   来源:本站原创  日期:2009-12-4 9:28:41  点击数:

 

Paper One试卷一(90 minutes

Part Listening Comprehension20 minutes15 points)(略)

Part Vocabulary10 minutes10 points

Section A

DirectionsIn each itemchoose one word that best keeps the meaning of the sentence if it is substituted for the underlined word. Mark out your choice on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.

16.   People of diverse backgrounds now fly to distant places for pleasurebusiness or education.

A. different                  B. distinctive                C. similar                    D. separate

17.   The fun of playing the game was a greater incentive than the prize.

A. motive                    B. initiative                  C. excitement                      D. entertainment

18.   Sometimes the messages are conveyed through deliberateconscious gesturesother timesour bodies talk without our even knowing.

A. definite                   B. intentional                      C. delicate                    D. interactive

19.   Hunters have almost exterminated many of the larger animals while farmers destroyed many smaller animals.

A. wounded                 B. reduced                   C. killed                             D. trapped

20.   Today black children in South Africa are still reluctant to study subjects from which they were effectively barred for so long.

A. anxious                   B. curious                     C. opposed                   D. unwilling

21.   If a cat comes too close to its nestthe mockingbird initiates a set of actions to protect its offspring.

A. hastens                    B. triggers                   C. devises                    D. releases

22. Panic swept through the swimmers as they caught sight of a huge shark approaching menacingly.

A. Tension                   B. Excitement             C. Fear                       D. Nervousness

23.   Lighting levels are carefully controlled to fall within an acceptable level for optimal reading convenience.

A. ideal                    B. required                  C. optional                   D. standard

24.   Many observers believe that country will remain in a state of chaos if it fails to solve its chronic food shortage problem.

A. transient                       B. starving                        C. continuous                      D. severe

25.   The exhibition is designed to facilitate further cooperation between Chinese TV industry and overseas TV industries.

A. establish                  B. maximize                C. guarantee                 D. promote

Section B

DirectionsIn each questiondecide which of the four choices given will most suitably complete the sentence if inserted at the place marked. Mark out your choice on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.

26.   Anyone who can study abroad is fortunatebutof courseit is not easy to make the ____        from one culture to another.

A. translation              B. transportation           C. transmission            D. transition

27.   We ____ that diet is related to most types of cancer but we don’t have definite proof.

A. assure                     B. suspect                    C. ascertain                  D. suspend

28.   How large a proportion of the sales of stores in or near resort areas can be ____ to tourist spending

A. contributed              B. applied                    C. attributed                 D. attached

29.   Not all persons arrested and  ____ with a crime are guiltyand the main function of criminal courts is to determine who is guilty under the law.

A. sentenced                B. accused                    C. persecuted                D. charged

30.   He ____ in court that he had seen the prisoner run out of the bank after it had been robbed.

A. justified                  B. witnessed                 C. testified                   D. identified

31.   If you are a member of a clubyou must ____ to the rules of that club.

A. conform                  B. appeal                     C. refer                       D. access

32.   With the constant change of the conditionsthe outcome is not always ____.

A. favorable               B. predictable             C. dependable              D. reasonable

33.   Instead of answering the questionthe manager ____ his shoulders as if it were not important.

A. shrugged                 B. touched                  C. raised                             D. patted

34.   I am sorry for the ____ tone of your letterbut feel sure that things are not so bad with you as you say.

A. apologetic                      B. threatening                     C. pessimistic                      D. grateful

35.   A patient who is dying of incurable cancer of the throat is in terrible painwhich can no longer be satisfactorily ____.

A. diminished                     B. alleviated                 C. replaced                   D. abolished

Part Reading Comprehension50 minutes30 points

DirectionsThere are 6 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked ABC and D. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.

Passage One

Nuclear powers danger to healthsafetyand even life itself can be summed up in one wordradiation.

Nuclear radiation has a certain mystery about itpartly because it cannot be detected by human senses. It cant be seen or heardor touched or tastedeven though it may be all around us. There are other things like that. For exampleradio waves are all around us but we cant detect themsense themwithout a radio receiver. Similarlywe cant sense radioactivity without a radiation detector. But unlike common radio wavesnuclear radiation is not harmless to human beings and other living things.

At very high levelsradiation can kill an animal or human being outright by killing masses of cell in vital organs. But even the lowest levels can do serious damage. There is no level of radiation that is completely safe. If the radiation does not hit anything importantthe damage may not be significant. This is the case when only a few cells are hitand if they are killed outright. Your body will replace the dead cells with healthy ones. But if the few cells are only damagedand if they reproduce themselvesyou may be in trouble. They reproduce themselves in a deformed way. They can grow into cancer. Sometimes this does not show up for many years.

This is another reason for some of the mystery about nuclear radiation. Serious damage can be done without the victim being aware at the time that damage has occurred. A person can be irradiated and feel finethen die of cancer fivetenor twenty years later as a result. Or a child can be born weak or liable to serious illness as a result of radiation absorbed by its grandparents.

Radiation can hurt us. We must know the truth.

36.   According to the passagethe danger of nuclear power lies in        .

A. nuclear mystery                                     B. radiation detection

C. radiation level                                             D. nuclear radiation

37. Radiation can cause serious consequences even at the lowest level        .

A. when it kills few cells

B. if it damages few cells

C. though the damaged cells can repair themselves

D. unless the damaged cells can reproduce themselves

38.   The word“significant”in paragraph 3 most probably means        .

A. responsible              B. meaningful               C. fatal                 D. harmful

39.   Radiation can hurt us in the way that it can        .

A. kill large numbers of cells in main organs so as to cause death immediately

B. damage cells which may grow into cancer years later

C. affect the healthy growth of our offspring

D. All of the above

40.   Which of the following can be best inferred from the passage

A. The importance of protection from radiation cannot be over-emphasized.

B. The mystery about radiation remains unsolved.

C. Cancer is mainly caused by radiation.

D. Radiation can hurt those who are not aware of its danger.

Passage Two

In some waysthe United States has made spectacular progress. Fires no longer destroy 18000 buildings as they did in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871or kill half a town of 2400 peopleas they did the same night in PeshtigoWisconsin. Other than the Beverly Hill Supper Club fire in Kentuckyin 1977it has been four decades since more than 100 Americans died in a fire.

But even with such successesthe United States still has one of the worst fire death rates in the world. Safety experts say the problem is neither money nor technologybut the indifference of a country that just will not take fires seriously enough.

American fire departments are some of the worlds fastest and best equipped. They have to be. The United States has twice Japans populationand 40 times as many as fires. It spends far less on preventing fires than on fighting them. And American fire-safety lessons are aimed almost entirely at childrenwho die in disproportionately large numbers in fires but whocontrary to popular mythstart very few of them.

Experts say the fatal error is an attitude that fires are not really anyones fault. That is not so in other countrieswhere both public education and the law treat fires as either a personal failing or a crime. Japan has many wood housesof the estimated 48 fires in world history that burned more than 10000 buildingsJapan has had 27. Penalties for by negligence can be as high as life imprisonment.

In the United Statesmost education dollars are spent in elementary schools. But the lessons are aimed at too limited an audiencejust 9 percent of all fire deaths are caused by children playing with matches.

The United States continues to rely more on technology than laws or social pressure. There are smoke detectors in 85 percent of all homes. Some local building codes now require home sprinklers. New heaters and irons shut themselves off if they are tipped.

41.   The reason why so many Americans die in fires is that        .

A. they took no interest in new technology

B. they did not attach great importance to preventing fires

C. they showed indifference to fighting fires

D. they did not spend enough money on fire facilities

42.   Although the fire death rate has declinedthe United States        .

A. still has the worst fire death rate in the world

B. is still alert to the fire problem

C. is still training a large number of safety experts

D. is still confronted with the serious fire problem

43.   It can be inferred from the passage that        .

A. fire safety lessons should be aimed at American adults

B. American children have not received enough education of fire safety lesson

C. Japan is better equipped with fire facilities than the Untied States

D. America’s large population accounts for high fire frequency

44.   In what aspects should the United States learn from Japan

A. Architecture and building material.

B. Education and technology.

C. Laws and attitude.

D. All of the above.

45.   To narrow the gap between the fire death rate in the United States and that in other countriesthe author suggests        .

A. developing new technology

B. counting more on laws and social pressure

C. placing a fire extinguisher in every family

D. reinforcing the safeness of household appliances

Passage Three

There are hidden factors which scientists callfeedback mechanisms. No one knows quite how they will interact with the changing climate. Heres one exampleplants and animals adapt to climate change over centuries. At the current estimate of half a degree centigrade of warming per decadevegetation(植物)may not keep up. Climatologist James Hansen predicts climate zones will shift toward the poles by 50 to 75 kilometres a year-faster than trees can naturally migrate. Species that find themselves in an unfamiliar environment will die. The 1000 kilometre-wide strip of forest running through Canadathe USSR and Scandinavia could be cut by half. Millions of dying trees would soon lead to massive forest firesreleasing tons of CO2 and further boosting global warming.

There are dozens of other possiblefeedback mechanisms. Higher temperatures will fuel condensation and increase cloudinesswhich may actually damp down global warming. Otherslike thealbedoeffectwill do the opposite. Thealbedoeffect is the amount of solar energy reflected by the earths surface. As northern ice and snow melts and the darker sea and land pokes(戳)throughmore heat will be absorbedadding to the global temperature increase.

Even if we were to magically stop all greenhouse-gas emissions tomorrow the impact on global climate would continue for decades. Delay will simply make the problem worse. The fact is that some of us are doing quite well the way things are. In the developed world prosperity has been built on 150 years of cheap fossil fuels.

Material progress has been linked to energy consumption. Today 75 percent of all the worlds energy is consumed by a quarter of the worlds population. The average rich world resident adds about 3.2 tons of CO2 yearly to the atmospheremore than four times the level added by each Third World citizen. The USwith just 7 percent of the global populationis responsible for 22 percent of global warming.

46.“Feedback mechanisms”in paragraph 1 most probably refer to        .

A. how plants and animals adapt to hidden factors

B. how plants and animals interact with the changing climate

C. how climate changes

D. how climate zones shift

47.   James Hansen predicts that the shift of climate zones will be accompanied by        .

A. the cutting of many trees                              B. desirable environmental changes

C. successful migration of species                      D. unsuccessful migration of trees

48.   We can learn from the passage that        .

A. some feedback mechanisms may slow down global warming

B. the basic facts of global warming are unknown

C. developing countries benefit from cheap fossil fuels

D. developed countries have decided to reduce their energy consumption

49.   It can be inferred from the passage that        .

A. the developing world has decided to increase its energy consumption

B. a third-world citizen adds less than a ton of CO2 yearly to the atmosphere

C. the world climate would soon gain its balance if we stopped greenhouse-gas emissions

D. future prosperity of the world is dependent on cheap fossil fuels

50.   Which of the following is the main topic of the passage

A. Material Progress and Energy Consumption.

B. Prosperity and Cheap Fossil Fuels.

C. Impact of Global Warming on Climate.

D. Plants and Animals in the Changing Climate.

Passage Four

Learning disabilities are very common. They affect perhaps 10 percent of all children. Four times as many boys as girls have learning disabilities.

Since about 1970new research has helped brain scientists understand these problems better. Scientists now know there are many different kinds of learning disabilities and that they are caused by many different things. There is no longer any question that all learning disabilities result from differences in the way the brain is organized.

You cannot look at a child and tell if he or she has a learning disability. There is no outward sign of the disorder. So some researchers began looking at the brain itself to learn what might be wrong.

In one studyresearchers examined the brain of a learning-disabled personwho had died in an accident. They found two unusual things. One involved cells in the left side of the brainwhich control language. These cells normally are white. In the learning-disabled personhoweverthese cells were gray. The researchers also found that many of the nerve cells were not in a line the way they should have been. The nerve cells were mixed together.

The study was carried out under the guidance of Norman Geschwindan early expert on learning disabilities. Doctor Geschwind proposed that learning disabilities resulted mainly from problems in the left side of the brain. He believed this side of the brain failed to develop normally. Probablyhe saidnerve cells there did not connect as they should. So the brain was like an electrical device in which the wires were crossed.

Other researchers did not examine brain tissue. Insteadthey measured the brains electrical activity and made a map of the electrical signals.

Frank Duffy experimented with this technique at Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Boston. Doctor Duffy found large differences in the brain activity of normal children and those with reading problems. The differences appeared throughout the brain. Doctor Duffy said his research is evidence that reading disabilities involve damage to a wide area of the brainnot just the left side.

51.   Scientists found that the brain cells of a learning-disabled person differ from those of a normal person in        .

A. structure and function                                   B. color and function

C. size and arrangement                                    D. color and arrangement

52.   Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage

A. Learning disabilities may result from the unknown area of the brain.

B. Learning disabilities may result from damage to a wide area of the brain.

C. Learning disabilities may result from abnormal organization of brain cells.

D. Learning disabilities may result from problems in the left side of the brain.

53.   All of the following statements are true EXCEPT that        .

A. many factors account for learning disorder

B. a learning-disabled person shows no outward signs

C. reading disabilities are a common problem that affects 10 percent of the population

D. the brain activity of learning-disabled children is different from that of normal children

54.   Doctor Duffy believed that        .

A. he found the exact cause of learning disabilities

B. the problem of learning disabilities was not limited to the left side of the brain

C. the problem of learning disabilities resulted from the left side of the brain

D. the problem of learning disabilities did not lie in the left side of the brain

55.   According to the passage we can conclude that further researches should be made        .

A. to investigate possible influences on brain development and organization

B. to study how children learn to read and writeand use numbers

C. to help learning-disabled children to develop their intelligence

D. to explore how the left side of the brain functions in language learning

Passage Five

Visual impairment(视觉障碍)carries with it a reduced or restricted ability to travel through ones physical and social environment until adequate orientation and mobility skills have been established. Because observational skills are more limitedself-control within the immediate surroundings is limited. The visually impaired person is less able to anticipate hazardous situations or obstacles to avoid.

Orientation refers to the mental map one has of ones surroundings and to the relationship between self and that environment. The mental map is best generated by moving through the environment and piecing together relationshipsobject by objectin an organized approach. With little or no visual feedback to reinforce this mental mapa visually impaired person must rely on memory for key landmarks and other clues. Landmarks and clues enable visually impaired persons to affirm their position in Space.

Mobilityon the other handis the ability to travel safely and efficiently from one point to another within ones physical and social environment. Good orientation skills are necessary to good mobility skills. Once visually impaired students learn to travel safely as pedestrians(行人)they also need to learn to use public transportation to become as independent as possible.

To meet the expanding needs and demands of the visually impaired personthere is a sequence of instruction that begins during the preschool years and may continue after high school. Many visually impaired children lack adequate concepts regarding time and space or objects and events in their environment. During the early years much attention is focused on the development of some fundamental conceptssuch as inside or outsidein front of or behindfast or slowmovement of trafficthe variety or intersectionselevators or escalatorsand so forth. These concepts are essential to safeefficient travel through familiar and unfamiliar settingsfirst within buildingsthen in residential neighborhoodsand finally in business communities.

56.   How can we increase the visually impaired persons ability to travel through his physical and social environment

A. By helping him develop adequate orientation and mobility skills.

B. By teaching him to learn observational skills.

C. By warning him of hazardous situations or obstacles.

D. By improving his visual ability.

57.   The visually impaired person’s position in space        .

A. is not determined by memory but by physical landmarks and clues

B. is located in relation to other items in his mental map

C. enables him to construct the mental map

D. reinforces the mental map of his surroundings

58.   Mobility skills which the visually impaired person is learning refer to the ability        .

A. to travel as a dependent tourist

B. to travel as a pedestrian and a passenger

C. to travel as a pedestrian with a company

D. to travel within the safe physical and social environment

59.   In the passagethe author insists that        .

A. visually impaired children go to school for survival

B. the needs and demands of visually impaired children expand

C. visually impaired children acquire the fundamental concepts for safe mobility

D. preschool children receive the instruction in the concepts of time and space or objects and events

60.   What is the author mainly talking about in the passage

A. Visual impairment and memory.

B. The visually impaired person’s physical and social environment.

C. Mental development of the visually impaired person.

D. Orientation and mobility of the visually impaired person.

Passage Six

Our bodies are wonderfully skilful at maintaining balance. When the temperature jumpswe sweat to cool down. When our blood pressure fallsour hearts pound to compensate. As it turned outthoughour natural state is not a steady one. Researchers are finding that everything from blood pressure to brain function varies rhythmically with the cycles of sunmoon and seasons. And their insights are yielding new strategies for keeping away such common killers as heart disease and cancer. Only one doctor in 20 has a good knowledge of the growing field of chronotherapeutics”,the strategic use of timechronosin medicine. But according to a new American Medical Association pollthree out of four are eager to change that.The field is exploding”,says Michael Smolensky.Doctors used to look at us likeWhat spaceship did you guys get off?’ Now theyre thirsty to know more.

In medical schoolmost doctors learn that people with chronic conditions should take their medicine at steady rates.Its a terrible way to treat disease.says Dr. Richard Martin. For exampleasthmatics(气喘患者)are most likely to suffer during the night. Yet most patients strive to keep a constant level of medicine in their blood day and nightwhether by breathing in on an inhaler(吸入器)four times a day or taking a pill each morning and evening. In recent studiesresearchers have found that a large mid-afternoon dose of a bronchodilator(支气管扩张剂)can be as safe as several small dosesand better for preventing nighttime attacks.

If the night belongs to asthmathe dawn belongs to high blood pressure and heart disease. Heart attacks are twice as common at 9 a.m. as at 11 p. m.. Part of the reason is that our blood pressure fails predictably at nightthen peaks as we start to work for the day.Doctors know that”,says Dr. Henry Black of Chicagos Medical Center,“but until nowwe havent been able to do anything about it.Most blood pressure drugs provide 18 to 20 hours of relief. But because theyre taken in the morningtheyre least effective when most needed.You take your pill at 7 and its working by 9,”says Dr. William White of the University of Connecticut Health Center,“but by that time youve gone through the worst four hours of the day with no protection.Bedtime dosing would prevent that lapsebut it would also push blood pressure to dangerously low levels during the night.

61. According to the passagehow do human bodies maintain balance

A. They adjust themselves timely in line with their physical conditions.

B. People increase or lower the body temperature by sweating.

C. People’s hearts pound to compensate when the blood pressure goes up.

D. Both B and C.

62.   Researchers are finding that        .

A. heart disease and cancer are the most common killers of human beings

B. blood pressure and brain function are decided by cycles of sunmoon and seasons

C. the functions of human bodies have much to do with nature

D. any change in human bodies goes systematically with changes in the environment

63.   According to the authorit is best for asthmatics to take their medicines        .

A. at steady rates                                              B. each morning and evening

C. when the disease occurs                                D. at mid-afternoon

64.   Which of the following statements is NOT true

A. Doctors know more about chronotherapeutics than before.

B. Doctors in the U.S. used to be thirsty to know more about the new medical field.

C. The researchers’ insights are providing new strategies to prevent common killers.

D. The strategic use of time in medicine attracts more attention in the medical circle in the U.S..

65.   The suggested title for this passage might be        .

A. Medicine is Everything                                 B. Treatment is Everything

C. Timing is Everything                                    D. Prevention is Everything

Part Cloze Test10 minutes10 points

DirectionsThere are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked ABC and D on the right side on the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with single line through the center.

Music comes in many formsmost countries have a style of their own.   66   the turn of the century when jazz(爵士乐)was bornAmerica had no prominent   67    of its own. No one knows exactly when jazz was    68   or by whombut it began to be    69    in the early 1900s. Jazz is Americas contribution to    70    music. In contrast to classical musicwhich

   71   formal European traditionsjazz is spontaneous and free-form. It bubbles with energy

   72   moodsinterestsand emotions of the people. In the 1920s jazz    73    like Americanand    74    it does today. The    75    of this music are as interesting as the music    76   . American Negroesor blacksas they are called todaywere the jazz    77   . They were brought to the Southern States    78    slaves.They were sold to plantation owners and forced to work long    79   . When a Negro diedhis friends and relatives    80    a procession to carry the body to the cemetery. In New Orleansa band often accompanied the    81   . On the way to the cemetery the band played slowsolemn music suited to the occasion.    82    on the way home the mood changed. Spirits lifted. Death had removed one of their    83   but the living were glad to be alive. The band played    84    musicimprovising(即兴表演)on both the harmony and the melody of the tunes    85    at the funeral. This music made everyone want to dance. It was an early form of jazz.

66.   A. By                          B. At                           C. In                           D. On

67.   A. music                             B. song                        C. melody                    D. style

68.   A. discovered                      B. acted                       C. invented                  D. designed

69.   A. noticed                    B. found                             C. listened                   D. heard

70.   A. classical                  B. sacred                     C. popular                   D. light

71.   A. forms                             B. follows                    C. approaches                      D. introduces

72.   A. expressing                      B. explaining                      C. exposing                  D. illustrating

73.   A. appeared                  B. felt                         C. seemed                    D. sounded

74.   A. as                           B. so                           C. either                             D. neither

75.   A. origins                    B. originals                  C. discoveries                      D. resources

76.   A. concerned                B. itself                       C. available                  D. oneself

77.   A. players                    B. followers                 C. fans                        D. pioneers

78.   A. for                          B. as                           C. with                        D. by

79.   A. months                  B. weeks                             C. hours                             D. times

80.   A. demonstrated           B. composed                C. hosted                     D. formed

81.   A. demonstration          B. procession                      C. body                       D. march

82.   A. Even                       B. Therefore                C. Furthermore            D. But

83.   A. number                   B. members                 C. bodies                     D. relations

84.   A. sad                         B. solemn                    C. happy                             D. funeral

85.   A. whistled                  B. sung                        C. presented                 D. showed

Paper Two试卷二(60 minutes

Part Error Detection and Correction10 minutes10 points

DirectionsEach of the following sentences has four underlined parts. These parts are labeled ABC and D. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark out your choice on the ANSWER SHEET. Thenwithout altering the meaning of the sentencewrite down your correction on the line on the ANSWER SHEET.

1. Evidently we didnt understand directionsfor we made a wrong turn and found us lost

     A                                 B                            C

confused as to which way we should go.

   D

2. It is indeed hard to overestimate the value of language in communicationbut it is even hard to

       A                                                       B          C

overestimate its value in thinking.

           D

3. Written English has become more importantly in business Englishwith the invention of the fax

        A                        B             C        D

and the computer.

 

4. When a post office handles large quantities of mail dailyit is essential that mechanical methods

                              A

are used to maintain production and insure prompt delivery of the mails.

  B         C                        D

5. Vincent Van Gogh killed himself when he was only 37but he left behind him more than 2000

                        A                                B

paintings and drawingsthat established his reputation in a way he would never have considered

                     C                                         D

possible.

6. Perhaps surprisingly the main obstacles to realize this dream is neither technical nor

             A         B             C            D

commercial.

7. If you read Canadian English Dictionariesyou certainly find both American and British

                                            A

spellings listing and the first word is the spelling preferred by the educated Canadian majority.

         B                                C                      D

8. The lightwhich otherwise disturbed the patientwas excluded from his room by means of the

             A              B                    C                   D

window behind.

9. Each culture has its own distinctive ways of seeingfeelingthinkingspeakingbelieving

   A                            B

and just like no two humans are identical in all respectsso no two cultures are identical in all

      C                                              D

respects.

10 According to Maxwell Maltour successes and failures depend largely on our own

                                        A                  B

conception of ourselves namelyhow do we ourselves.

                                  C          D

Part Translation20 minutes10 points

DirectionsTranslate the following paragraph into English. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.

环境科学家们说,如果要使地球继续供养人类生存,保护野生生物是极为重要的。这些专家说,我们必须明白,在我们这个环境供养系统中我们自己与野生动植物之间的重要联系。他们指出,没有人有把握地知道这些动植物中的哪一种将来可能对我们有用。

Part Guided Writing30 minutes15 points

DirectionsFor this partyou are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition of no less than 100 words under the title of Why We Work. Your composition should be based on the following outline given in English.

1 Some people live to work.

2 Other people work to live.

3 Your opinion.

1998年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题答案与解析

Paper One试卷一(90 minutes

Part Listening Comprehension(略)

Part Vocabulary

Section A

16       【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】不同背景的人们乘飞机到遥远的地方去寻找快乐、商机或教育。

【考点类型】修饰限定

【考点剖析】different“不同的,多样的”;distinctive“特殊的,有特色的”;similar“相似的,相像的”;separated“分离的,单独的”。四个词中只有differentdiverse的意思相近。diverse的意思是“不同的,不一样的”。

17.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】比赛过程所带来的乐趣要比奖金的激励大得多。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】motive“动机”;initiative“起初,主动”;excitement“兴奋,刺激”;entertainment“娱乐,盛情款待”。注意到incentive前面是greater,是比较关系,再结合语境,我们可以推测出incentive的意思是“激励,鼓励”,“motive”与之最相近。

18.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】有时,可以通过专门的手势来传递信息;而另一些时候,我们的身体会无意识地传递信息。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】definite“确定的,明白的”;intentional“故意的,刻意的”;delicate“精致的,精美的”;interactive“相互影响的,有交互作用的”。consciousdeliberate共同修饰gestures,属并列关系。conscious意为“有意识的,故意的”,所以可以推测deliberate意为“有意识的,故意的”。故选择B。另外,也可以根据前后两个句子的对比关系来推断deliberate的意思。

19.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】猎人们屠杀了许多大型动物,使它们濒临绝种;而农民则消灭了许多小动物。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】wounded“被伤害,被击伤”;reduced“减少的,简化的”;killed“被杀死的,断开的”;trapped“收集的,捕获的”。分析句子结构,可以知道destroyedexterminated的意思应该相近,由此可以推断exterminated有“灭绝”之意。所以选C

20.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】现在,非洲的孩子们仍然不愿意学习那些实际上长期以来禁止他们学习的科目。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】anxious“担忧的,渴望的”;curious“好奇的,古怪的”;opposed“反对的,敌对的”;unwilling“不愿意,勉强的”。reluctant“勉强的,不情愿的”,be reluctant to do something意为“不愿意做某事”,所以选unwilling最合适,be unwilling to do something意为“不愿意做某事”。

21.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】如果有猫靠近嘲鸟窝时,嘲鸟会采取一系列的措施来保护它们的幼鸟。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】hastens“催促,加速”;triggers“引发,触发”;devises“发明,图谋”;releases“释放,发表”。根据一般常识,当有危险的动物靠近嘲鸟窝时,嘲鸟会采取一系列的措施来保护它们的幼鸟。由此推断initiatestriggers意思相似,意为“发动,发起”,故选B

22.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】当看到一个巨大的鲨鱼向他们靠近时,游泳者感到非常恐惧。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】tension“紧张,不安”;excitement“兴奋,刺激”;fear“害怕,恐惧”;nervousness“神经过敏,紧张”。当游泳者看到有鲨鱼靠近他们的时候,他们的反应是害怕和恐惧,由此推断,panic意为“惊慌,恐慌”,与fear意思相近,故答案是C

23.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】光线被小心地调控到令人满意的程度,以最大程度方便阅读。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】ideal“理想的,完美的”;required“必需的,要求的”;optional“随意的,可选择的”;standard“标准的,权威的”。调节灯光的照明度以方便怎么样的阅读,可以推测optimal意为“最佳的,理想的”,ideal与之意思相近,故选A

24.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】许多观察员认为,如果这个国家不能够解决长期的食物短缺问题,它将会一直处于混乱的状态。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】transient“短暂的,瞬间的”;starving“使饿死”;continuous“连续的,持续的”;severe“严重的,严峻的”。这个国家之所以可能一直处于混乱的状态,原因一定是长期的食物短缺问题,可以推测chronic意为“慢性的,延续很长的”。四个选项中只有continuouschronic意思最相近,故选C

25.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】这场展览会的目的是促进中国和海外电视产业的进一步合作。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】establish“建立,安置”;maximize“最佳化,最大值”;guarantee“保证,担保”;promote“促进,提升”。根据题意和常识推断,展览会的目的一般是促进进一步的合作,所以facilitate应该意为“使便利,推动”的意思,与promote意思最相似,故选D

Section B

26.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】对任何人来讲出国是一件幸运的事,但是从一种文化过渡到另一种文化并非易事。

【考点类型】逻辑关系

【考点剖析】translation“翻译,转换”;transportation“运输,运送”;transmission“发射,转播”;transition“过渡,跃迁”。从一种文化到另一种文化,很明显是一种过渡关系,所以应该选D

27.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】我们怀疑饮食会导致许多类型的癌症,但是我们没有确切的证据。

【考点类型】逻辑关系

【考点剖析】assure“保证,担保”;suspect“怀疑,猜想”;ascertain“确定,探知”;suspend“悬挂,延缓”。由于没有确凿的证据,所以我们只能怀疑饮食会导致许多类型的癌症,所以选B

28.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】旅游胜地附近的商店销售有多大比例归功于旅游者消费呢?

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】attributed“归功,归结”;applied“应用”;attached“附属,喜爱”;con-

tributed“捐献,贡献”。四个词都可以与介词to搭配,考虑到tourist spendingsales是所属关系,所以选择C

29.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】并不是所有被逮捕和指控的人都有罪,刑事法庭的主要作用是根据法律判定谁有罪。

【考点类型】惯用搭配

【考点剖析】sentenced“宣判,判决”;accused“被告”;persecuted“迫害”;charged“指控、控告”。四个词当中只有charged能与with搭配,意为“被指控”,所以选D

30.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】他在法庭上证实他看到那个囚犯在银行被抢劫后跑出银行。

【考点类型】近义词辨析

【考点剖析】justified“证明是正当的”;witnessed“目击,表明”;testified“证明,作证”;identified“鉴别,识别”。根据一般常识,应该是在法庭上作证,故选C

31.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】如果你是俱乐部的一员,那么你必须遵守俱乐部的规则。

【考点类型】语义连贯

【考点剖析】四个词都可以与to 搭配。conform to“遵守”;appeal to“恳请,上诉”;refer to“涉及,谈到”;access to“接近,进入”。俱乐部成员应该遵守俱乐部的规则,所以应该选择A

32.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】由于条件不断变化,所以结果不好预测。

【考点类型】语义连贯

【考点剖析】favorable“有利的,良好的”;predictable“可预言的”;dependable“可靠的”;reasonable“合理的,有道理的”。前后句是因果关系,条件的不断变化导致了结果不好预测,所以选B

33.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】经理耸耸肩膀,好像说问题不是太重要,而不是回答问题。

【考点类型】语义连贯

【考点剖析】shrugged“耸肩”;touched“触摸,触动”;raised“举起,提高”;patted“轻拍”。由instead of我们知道前后两句动词是相反的意思,一般人们用耸肩代替说话,所以选择A

34.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】我对你来信悲观的基调表示难过,但是我确定事情并不像你说的那样糟糕。

【考点类型】逻辑关系

【考点剖析】apologetic“辩护的,道歉的”;threatening“威胁的,危险的”;pessimistic“悲观的,厌世的”;grateful“感激的,感谢的”。根据后句说我确定事情不像你说的那么糟糕可以推断出信中是一种悲观的情绪,所以选C

35.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】死于咽喉癌的病人是非常痛苦的,这种痛苦是丝毫不能缓解的。

【考点类型】语义连贯

【考点剖析】diminished“减少了的,被贬低的”;alleviated“减轻,缓解”;replaced“取代,代替”;abolished“废除,废止”。根据题干的意思,只能选择B

Part Reading Comprehension

Passage One

核能对健康、安全甚至生命本身构成的危害可以概括为一个词:辐射。

核辐射有着某种神秘的地方,部分原因是它无法被人类的感官所感知。即使它可能就在我们周围,人们也不能看到或听到、触摸到或者品尝到它。还有一些其他东西也像这样。比如:无线电波就在我们周围,如果没有接收器,我们也无法探测到它们。同样,如果没有辐射探测器,我们也无法感觉到辐射。但是,不像一般的无线电波,核辐射对人类和其他生物是有害的。

当核辐射强度非常高时,辐射可以通过杀死重要器官的大量细胞,导致动物或人立刻死亡。但是,即使是辐射强度最低的时候也能导致严重的伤害。没有哪一种强度的辐射是绝对安全的。如果辐射没有伤害到任何重要的器官,这种伤害可能就不严重。这种情况是只有少数细胞受到辐射并且被杀死了,你身体内的死亡细胞就会被健康的细胞代替。但是,如果少数的细胞仅仅是受到伤害,并且如果它们自己可以再生,你可能就陷入麻烦了。它们是以一种畸形的方式进行再生的。它们能够演变成癌。有时,这种症状很多年后才会显现出来。

下面是有关核辐射某种神秘性的另一个原因。在辐射造成损害时,受害者可能不知道自己已经受到严重伤害。一个人被辐射后可能感觉正常,然后在五年、十年或二十年后死于癌症。或者,由于其祖父母受到辐射,一名小孩可能生下来就体弱,或易患病。

辐射会伤害我们。我们必须了解这个事实。

36.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】根据文章表达,核能的危险在于       

A. 核的神秘                              B. 放射检查

C. 放射的程度                                  D. 核放射

线索:文章的第1段提到“Nuclear powers danger to healthsafetyand even life itself can be summed up in one wordradiation.”表明选项D是正确答案。

37.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】辐射即使在最底的程度也会造成严重的后果,       

A. 当它杀死很少的细胞时

B. 如果它危害很少的细胞

C. 尽管受危害的细胞能自己修复

D. 如果受危害的细胞能自我复制

线索:文章的第3段提到“But if the few cells are only damagedand if they reproduce themselvesyou may be in trouble.”表明选项D是正确答案。选项A和原文的内容相反,原文说“only a few cells are hitand if they are killed outright. Your body will replace the dead cells with healthy ones.”这样不会造成严重的后果。CB选项的内容和原文第3段的内容不符合。

38. 【正确答案】C

【考点类型】词汇推断             

【解析过程】这个单词“重要的”在文章第3段最有可能的含义是       

A. 负有责任心的                       B. 有意义的

C. 致命的                                         D. 有害的

线索:根据文章的第3段提到的内容,如果辐射没有攻击到任何重要的东西,那么危害也许就不是非常的严重。所以选项C是正确答案。

【考点提示】词汇题的解决办法是代入法:即当不能确定答案时把选项分别代入原文,看看哪一个通,那么就是哪个。

①返回原文,找出该词汇出现的地方。

②注意结合上下文理解该单词的含义。

③如果该词汇是简单词汇,则其字面意思必然不是正确答案。

39.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】辐射能伤害我们通过的方式是       

A. 杀死身体主要器官中的大量细胞而使人立即死亡

B. 损害的细胞几年后会变成癌症

C. 影响我们后代的健康成长

D. 以上各项

线索1:文章的第3段提到“At very high levelsradiation can kill an animal or human being outright by killing masses of cell in vital organs.”提到选项A

线索2:文章的第3段提到“...They reproduce themselves in a deformed way. They can grow into cancer...”提到选项B

线索3:文章的第4段提到“Or a child can be born weak or liable to serious illness as a result of radiation absorbed by its grandparents.”提到选项C

根据线索123,我们可以判断正确答案应该是D

40.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】主旨推断             

【解析过程】我们可以从文章中推出下面哪句?

A. 保护人们远离辐射,这一重要性再如何强调也不过分

B. 辐射的神秘仍然没有被解决

C. 癌症主要是由辐射造成的

D. 辐射能伤害那些没有意识到其危险的人

从文章的整体我们可以看到辐射的问题非常严重,我们应该远离辐射。文章第1段、第5段都明确地提到了这一点。

 Passage Two

在某些方面,美国取得了令人瞩目的成就。大火不再像1871年发生在芝加哥的火灾那样烧毁18000幢房屋,或是像同一个夜晚发生在威斯康星州帕西蒂戈市的大火那样,烧死一个城镇中的1200人。除了1977年肯塔基州贝弗利山晚餐俱乐部的火灾外,40年来,100多美国人死于一场火灾的事情再也没有发生过。

但是,即使取得了如此的成就,美国仍然是世界上火灾死亡率最高的国家之一。安全专家说,问题的出现既不是因为资金也不是因为技术,而是因为这个国家的漠不关心,这个国家对火灾还没有足够的重视。

美国的消防部门是世界上行动最快的、装备最好的部门。他们不得不这样。美国的人口是日本人口数量的两倍,火灾的发生次数却是日本的40倍。美国用于防火的费用远远低于用于灭火的费用。美国的防火安全教育针对的几乎都是儿童,他们在火灾中的死亡人数不成比例地高,但是,与流行的说法相反,很少火灾是由于儿童引起的。

专家说,致命的错误是认为火灾其实不是任何人的错误的态度。在其他国家却不是这样,在这些国家,公共教育和法律把火灾看成是个人的失误,或者是犯罪行为。日本有许多木制房屋;在世界历史上,据估计,烧毁了一万多所建筑物的48场火灾中,发生在日本的有27场。对因为疏忽引起严重火灾的人的惩罚最高可达终生监禁。

在美国,大部分的教育经费都用在了小学。但是,火灾教育课的对象太有限;在所有烧死人的火灾中,只有9%是因为小孩玩火柴引起的。

美国还在更多地依赖技术而不是法律或社会压力。美国有85%的房屋装有烟雾探测器。一些地方建筑法规要求房屋必须装有自动喷水装置。如果新的取暖器和电熨斗被弄翻了就会自动断电。

41. 【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】如此多的美国人在大火中丧生的原因是       

A. 他们对新技术不感兴趣

B. 他们对防火不重视

C. 他们对灭火漠不关心

D. 他们对灭火的设施没有投入足够的钱

线索:文章的第2段提到“Safety experts say the problem is neither money nor technologybut the indifference of a country that just will not take fires seriously enough.”表明选项B是正确答案。选项A和原文第6段的内容“The United States continues to rely more on technology than laws or social pressure.”相反。选项C原文根本没有提到。选项D和原文第3段的内容“American fire departments are some of the worlds fastest and best equipped.”相反。

42.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】尽管火灾的死亡率已经下降,美国       

A. 仍然是世界上火灾死亡率最高的国家

B. 仍然对于火灾的问题很警觉

C. 仍然在培训一大批的安全专家

D. 仍然面临着很严重的火灾问题

线索:文章的第2段提到“But even with such successesthe United States still has one of the worst fire death rates in the world.”表明A是正确答案。

43.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节推断             

【解析过程】从本文可以推论出       

A. 防火安全措施应该针对美国成年人

B. 美国孩子并没有获得足够的防火安全课程教育

C. 和美国相比,日本配备了更好的防火设施

D. 美国巨大的人口数量导致了火灾的发生率高

线索:文章的第5段提到“most education dollars are spent in elementary schools. But the lessons are aimed at too limited an audiencejust 9 percent of all fire deaths are caused by children playing with matches.”表明选项A是正确答案。选项B和原文第5段“most education dollars are spent in elementary schools”不符合。选项C和原文第3段“American fire departments are some of the worlds fastest and best equipped”不符合。选项D和原文第3段“The United States has twice Japans populationand 40 times as man fires.”不符合。

44.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】美国应该从日本那里学习什么?

A. 建筑业和建筑材料                B. 教育和技术

C. 法律和态度                                  D. 以上所有选项

线索1:文章的第6段提到“The United States continues to rely more on technology than laws or social pressure.

线索2:文章的第4段提到“Experts say the fatal error is an attitude that fires are not really anyones fault.

结合线索1和线索2,我们可以知道是美国人对火灾的态度出了问题。所以选项C是正确答案。

45.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节推断             

【解析过程】为了缩短美国火灾死亡率和其他国家之间的差距,作者建议       

A. 发展新的技术

B. 更多地依靠法律和社会压力

C. 在每一个家庭放置一个灭火器

D. 重新加强家庭设备的安全

线索:文章的第6段提到“The United States continues to rely more on technology than laws or social pressure.”表达了作者对于美国依靠消防技术降低火灾的死亡率的不满。暗示了要依靠法律和社会舆论的压力来降低火灾的死亡率。

【考点提示】选项C和选项D一般不太可能是正确答案。原因:①该选项都太具体了;②和文章的主题没有直接的关联。考研的文章一般是比较有深度的文章,所以选项的设计也就要求一定要有深刻的意义。这样判断B的正确几率就很大。

Passage Three

有一些隐性因素科学家称之为“反馈机制”。没有人确切地知道它们是怎样与变化的气候相互作用。举一个例子:许多世纪以来,植物和动物适应气候的变化。根据目前的估计,温度每十年上升0.5摄氏度,植物可能赶不上这一速度。气候学家詹姆斯·汉森预计,气候带每年将向极地转移5075公里,比树木自然迁移的速度快。那些发觉自己生活于一个不熟悉环境的物种将会灭绝。横跨加拿大、苏联和斯堪的纳维亚1000公里宽的森林带将会减少一半。不久,数百万濒临死亡的树木会导致大规模森林火灾,并释放出成吨的二氧化碳,加速全球变暖。

可能还有一些其他的“反馈机制”。更高的温度将加速浓缩,增加阴暗度。这实际上可能抑制全球变暖。其他的“反馈机制”,像“反射”效应,将会起到相反的作用。“反射”效应指的是地球表面反射的太阳能量。随着北极冰雪的融化,更深的海洋和陆地显现出来,吸收更多的热量,导致全球温度上升。

即使我们明天就可以神奇地停止排放所有温室气体,温室气体对全球气候的影响仍然会持续几十年。延误只会使问题变得更糟。事实上,我们中的一些人按事情固有的方式做得非常好。在一些发达国家,繁荣建立在150年来使用廉价矿物燃料之上。

物质的进步与能源的消耗联系在一起了。如今25%的人消耗了世界上75%的能源。在富裕国家,平均每人每年向大气释放约3.2吨二氧化碳,是第三世界国家每个公民的4倍多。美国只有全球7%的人口,但是它应该为全球变暖承担22%的责任。

46.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节推断             

【解析过程】“反馈机制”在第1段最有可能指的是       

A. 植物和动物是如何适应隐性因素的

B. 植物和动物如何适应不断改变的气候的

C. 气候如何变化

D. 气候地带是如何变化的

线索:文章的第1段提到“plants and animals adapt to climate change over centuries.”表明正确答案为B。选项C和选项D在文章的第1段提到了,但和反馈机制无任何关系。只是说明植物和动物适应气候的一个因素。

47.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】James Hansen 预测气温带的改变将会伴随       

A. 许多树木的减少                          B. 令人渴望的环境变化

C. 物种的成功移动                           D. 不成功的树木迁移

线索:文章的第1段提到“Species that find themselves in an unfamiliar environment will die.”表明选项D是正确答案。选项A和本题干没有直接的关联。

48.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节推断             

【解析过程】根据本文章,我们可知       

A. 一些反馈机制也许会减缓全球变暖

B. 全球变暖的基本事实仍然不为人所知

C. 发展中国家可以从便宜的化石燃料获得利益

D. 发达国家已经决定减少他们的能源消耗

线索:文章的第2段提到“There are dozens of other possible.”“feedback mechanisms. Higher temperatures will fuel condensation and increase cloudinesswhich may actually damp down global warming.”表明选项A是正确答案。选项B在原文中没有提到。选项C的内容和原文的内容不符合:“In the developed world prosperity has been built on 150 years of cheap fossil fuels.”原文是发达国家。选项D在文章中没有提到。

49.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节推断            

【解析过程】从文中我们可以推知:       

A. 发展中国家已经决定增加它的能源消耗

B. 一个第三世界的居民每年向大气层增加的二氧化碳少于一吨

C. 如果我们停止温室气体的排放,世界气候很快就会获得它的平衡

D. 全世界将来的繁荣依靠便宜的矿物燃料

线索:文章的第4段提到“The average rich world resident adds about 3.2 tons of CO2 yearly to the atmospheremore than four times the level added by each Third World citizen.”表明选项B是正确答案。选项C和原文的内容第3段“Even if we were to magically stop all greenhouse-gas emissions tomorrow the impact on global climate would continue for decades. Delay will simply make the problem worse.”不符合。选项D在文章中没有提到。

50.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】主旨判断             

【解析过程】下面哪句是文章的主题?

A. 物质发展和能源消耗                   B. 繁荣和廉价矿物燃料

C. 全球变暖对气候的影响         D. 气候不断改变下的植物和动物

综观整篇文章,选项B肯定不会是正确答案。选项A和文章的主题“反馈机制”也根本不符合。选项D只是在文章的第1段提到了,它也只是一个事例。所以选项C是正确答案。

Passage Four

无学习能力的现象非常普遍。它影响了10%的儿童。无学习能力的男孩的数量是女孩的四倍。

大约从1970年以来,新的研究已经帮助脑科学家更好地探讨了这一问题。科学家现在了解到:有很多不同种类的无学习能力,它们由许多不同的原因引起。可以肯定的是:所有的无学习能力都是由大脑组合在一起的不同方式导致的。

你不可能看一眼某个儿童就说他或她有无无学习能力症,这种疾病没有外在表现。因此,一些研究人员开始研究大脑本身,以便了解哪个部位出了什么问题。

在一项研究中,研究人员检查了一个死于意外事故的无学习能力者的大脑。他们发现了两件不寻常的事情。一件是与大脑左半部的细胞有关的,这些细胞控制语言,这些细胞在正常情况下是白色的。然而,这个无学习能力者的细胞却是灰色的。研究人员还发现,许多神经细胞并没有按照它们应该的方式排成一条直线,而是交织在一起。

这项研究是在诺尔曼·盖茨维德的指导下进行的,他是一个早期研究无学习能力的专家。盖茨维德医生指出,无学习能力主要是由于大脑左半部出现问题造成的。他认为,大脑的这半部分没有正常发育。他说,神经细胞没有按照它们应该的方式连接起来。所以,大脑就像一个线路交叉在一起的电子设备。

其他研究人员没有对脑部组织进行研究。相反,他们检测了脑部的电子活动,并绘制了一幅电子信号图。

弗兰克·达菲在波士顿的儿童医院医学中心用这种技术进行了试验。他发现,正常儿童与那些无学习能力的儿童的脑部活动有很大差异。这些差异遍布大脑。达菲医生说,他的研究证实:无学习能力与大脑许多部位的损伤有关,而不只是与大脑的左半部有关。

51.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】科学家们发现,没有学习能力的人的大脑细胞和一个正常人的大脑细胞的不同在于       

A. 结构和功能                                 B. 颜色和功能

C. 大小排序                              D. 颜色和排序

线索1:文章的第3段提到“These cells normally are white. In the learning-disabled personhoweverthese cells were gray.

线索2:文章的第3段提到“The researchers also found that many of the nerve cells were not in a line the way they should have been. The nerve cells were mixed together.

通过线索1和线索2的理解,我们可以判断正确答案应该是选项D.

52.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】下面哪句话是文章没有提到的?

A. 无学习能力可能是由于大脑不被人认知的部位造成的。

B. 无学习能力可能是由于大脑许多部位受到伤害造成的。

C. 无学习能力可能是由于脑细胞的不正常组织造成的。

D. 无学习能力可能是由于大脑左侧的问题。

线索1:文章的第7段提到“that reading disabilities involve damage to a wide area of the brainnot just the left side.”表明B在原文中明确提到。

线索2:文章的第3段提到“... nerve cells were mixed together.”表明选项C在文章中出现。

线索3:文章的第5段提到“Doctor Geschwind proposed that learning disabilities resulted mainly from problems in the left side of the brain.”表明选项D在原文中明确提到。

只有选项A在原文中没有提到。

53.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】细节排除             

【解析过程】下面哪句是不正确的?

A. 许多因素导致了无学习能力。

B. 一个没有学习能力的人不会向外展示信号。

C. 无学习能力是一个常见的问题,影响全部人口的10%

D. 没有学习能力的孩子大脑的活动和正常孩子的大脑活动不同。

线索:文章的第1段提到“They affect perhaps 10 percent of all children.”很清楚是占据了所有孩子的10%,所以选项C是错误答案。A选项在原文的第2段“...and that they are caused by many different things.”明确提到。B选项在原文第3段“There is no outward sign of the disorder.”明确提到。D选项在原文第4段“They found two unusual things...”明确提到。

54.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】达菲医生认为:       

A. 他发现了无学习能力的确切原因

B. 无学习能力的问题并不仅仅限于大脑的左侧

C. 无学习能力的问题来自于大脑的左侧

D. 无学习能力的问题不位于大脑的左侧

线索:文章的最后一段提到“Doctor Duffy said his research is evidence that reading disabilities involve damage to a wide area of the brainnot just the left side.”表明选项B是正确答案。选项C在文章中第4段提到了,但不是达菲说的。

55.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】根据文章,我们可以得出结论:进一步的研究将应该            

A. 调查可能影响大脑发展和组织的因素

B. 去研究孩子们是如何学习读书和习字,并且使用数字

C. 帮助无学习能力的孩子发展他们的智力

D. 去探索大脑的左半部分在语言学习时发挥的功能

这篇短文所涉及的内容主要是关于无学习能力的人的大脑的发展和组织结构,所以选项A是正确答案。

Passage Five

有视觉障碍的人如果没有掌握足够的定位和移动技能,他们在自然和社会环境中的行走能力会减弱或受到限制。因为在临近的环境中的自控能力受到限制,观察能力就更加受到限制,有视觉障碍的人不能预见应该避免的危险情况或障碍。

定位指的是一个人根据自己周围的环境以及他自身与这一环境的关系在大脑中形成的一张脑部图。通过在环境中移动,将环境中各个物体之间的关系一个一个地联系起来,就能够最好地形成这种脑部地图。很少或根本没有视觉反馈来加强这种脑部地图的话,有视觉障碍的人就必须依靠对关键性地标的记忆和其他线索。地标和线索使有视觉障碍的人能够确定他的位置和空间。

另外,移动指的是一个人在自然和社会环境中安全、有效地从一点向另一点行走的能力。良好的定位技能对良好的移动技能是必要的。一旦有视觉障碍的学生学会像行人一样安全行走,他还需要学会使用公共交通工具,以便尽可能地独立。

为了满足有视觉障碍者不断增长的需求,人们制订了一系列的培训计划,这种培训开始于学前阶段并持续到中学毕业。许多有视觉障碍的儿童对其环境中的空间或物体以及事件缺少适当的概念。在早期阶段,培训的重点应该放在一些基本概念的学习上,比如里或外、前或后、交通工具运行得快或慢、线路变化或交叉路口、电梯或自动扶梯等。这些概念对安全、有效地穿行于熟悉或不熟悉的环境至关重要,首先是有关建筑物内的概念,然后是有关其住宅区附近的概念,最后是有关商业区的概念。

56.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断

【解析过程】我们如何能帮助那些有视觉障碍的人提高他们在周围的环境中的能力?

A. 帮助他们发展充分的定位和移动的技能。

B. 教给他们学习观察的技能。

C. 警告他们危险的环境和障碍。

D. 提高他们的视觉能力。

线索:文章的第1段提到“Visual impairment(视觉障碍)carries with it a reduced or restricted ability to travel through ones physical and social environment until adequate orientation and mobility skills have been established.”表明A是正确答案。选项B和选项C是问题产生的原因,而不是解决该问题的办法。

57.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】有视觉障碍的人在空间的位置       

A. 不是被记忆力而是被身体特征和线索所决定

B. 通过他脑部图中的其他事物关系定位

C. 使他能够形成脑部图

D. 强化他有关周围环境的脑部图

线索:文章的第2段提到“Orientation refers to the mental map one has of ones surroundings and to the relationship between self and that environment. The mental map is best generated by moving.”表明选项B是正确答案。选项A和原文的第2段“...a visually impaired person must rely on memory for key landmarks and other clues. Landmarks and clues...”相反。

58.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】有视觉障碍的人学习的移动技能指的是       

A. 作为一个独立旅行家旅行的技能

B. 作为一个行人和乘客行走的能力

C. 作为一个带同伴的行人行走的能力

D. 在安全的自然和社会环境下行走的能力

线索:文章的第3段提到“Mobilityon the other handis the ability to travel safely and efficiently from one point to another within ones physical and social environment.”表明选项D是正确答案。

59.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】本文作者强调       

A. 有视觉障碍的孩子为了生存应该上学

B. 视觉上的需求损害了儿童的发展

C. 有视觉障碍的人获得基本的安全移动的概念

D. 学龄前的儿童应该得到有关时间、空间或事物等概念的培训

线索:文章的第4段提到“...These concepts are essential to safeefficient travel through familiar and unfamiliar settings...”表明选项D是正确答案。

60.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】主旨判断             

【解析过程】本文作者主要谈论的是       

A. 视觉障碍和记忆力

B. 视觉障碍的人的自然和社会环境

C. 视觉障碍的人的智力发展

D. 有视觉障碍的人的定位和移动

从整体上看,文章讨论了视觉障碍的人的方位确定和移动。

Passage Six

我们的身体能够极好地保持平衡。当体温上升时,我们就会出汗降温。当血压下降时,我们的心脏就会加速跳动来补充。正如所显示的,尽管我们身体的自然状态并不稳定。研究人员发现,从血压到大脑的功能等所有东西都有节奏地随着太阳、月亮和季节的循环而变化。他们的领悟正在为防止像心脏病和癌症这样的常见疾病杀手形成新的策略。只有1/20的医生非常了解“历时治疗法”这个不断扩大的领域在医学上对时间的战略性应用。但是,根据美国一项新的医学协会的调查,3/4的人渴望改变这种“该领域正在被开放”的状况。迈克·西蒙伦斯基说:“医生过去这样看我们,比如‘你们从什么太空船上来的?’现在,他们渴望知道更多。”

在医学院,大多数医生知道,慢性病患者应该有规律地服药。“治疗疾病是一种可怕的职业。”理查德·马丁医生说。比如,气喘患者经常在夜间犯病。不过,大多数病人坚持全天服用不变的药量,不管是每天通过吸入器呼吸四次,还是每天早晚服用一次药。在最近的一项调查中,研究人员发现:下午期间大量服用支气管扩张剂可能和服用很多小剂量的支气管扩张剂的安全性是一样的,而且能更好地防止病人在夜间犯病。

如果夜间是哮喘病的多发期,那么黎明时就是高血压和心脏病的多发期。上午九点时发作心脏病是晚上十一点时发作的两倍。部分原因是:我们不能在夜间预知我们的血压;然后,白天我们开始工作时,血压升到最高点。“医生知道这一点,”芝加哥医疗中心的亨利·布莱克医生说,“但是,直到现在我们还是对此无能为力。”大多数的降压药可以起1820小时的作用。但是,由于这些药是上午吃的,当病人最需要降压时,这些药的药效却最小了。“你七点钟吃药,药效可以保持到九点,”康涅狄格健康中心的威廉·怀特医生说,“但到那时,在没有保护的情况下,你已经度过了最危险的四个小时”。睡觉时服药可以防止血压下降,但也会使血压在夜间降到危险的程度。

61.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断

【解析过程】根据本文,人类的身体如何保持平衡?

A. 它们根据身体的状况及时调节自己。

B. 人类通过出汗增加或降低身体的温度。

C. 当血压上升的时候,人的心脏会加快跳动补充血液。

D. B选项和C选项。

线索:文章的第1段提到“Our bodies are wonderfully skilful at maintaining balance... that everything from blood pressure to brain function varies rhythmically with the cycles of sunmoon and seasons.”表明选项A是正确答案。B选项和原文第1段的内容“When the temperature jumpswe sweat to cool down.”不符合。C选项和原文第1段的内容“When our blood pressure fallsour hearts pound to compensate.”不符合。

62.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断

【解析过程】研究人员正在探索       

A. 心脏病和癌症是人类最普遍的“杀手”

B. 血压和大脑的功能是由太阳、月亮和季节所决定的

C. 人类身体的功能和自然界有很大的关联

D. 人类身体的任何改变都和环境的变化有关

线索:文章的第1段“... everything from blood pressure to brain function varies rhythmically with the cycles of sunmoon and seasons.”的内容告诉我们,人类的身体任何变化和它周围的环境有紧密的联系,所以选项D是正确答案。选项A和原文第1段的内容“such common killers as heart disease and cancer.”不符合。选项B混淆了原文的内容“everything from blood pressure to brain function varies rhythmically with the cycles of sunmoon and seasons.”不符合,原文说的是它们会伴随季节的变化而变化,而不是被这些因素决定。选项C原文没有提到。

63.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】根据本文,气喘患者最好        服药。

A. 有规律地                              B. 每天早上和晚上

C. 当疾病发作时                       D. 在下午

线索:文章的第2段提到“In recent studiesresearchers have found that a large mid-afternoon dose of a bronchodilator(支气管扩张剂)can be as safe as several small dosesand better for preventing nighttime attacks.”表明午后大剂量的用药或多次的小剂量的用药在安全性上是相同的,甚至能更好地防止夜间发作。选项A在原文的第2段“In medical schoolmost doctors learn that people with chronic conditions should take their medicine at steady rates.”提到,但它是作者要反对的内容。

64.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节排除             

【解析过程】下面哪句说法是错的?

A. 医生对历时治疗方法比从前更加了解。

B. 美国医生过去经常对于新的医学领域的知识如饥似渴。

C. 研究人员正在想方法提供新的措施阻止这些普通的“杀手”。

D. 用药时间的合理安排在美国的医疗领域吸引了更多的注意力。

线索:文章的第1段提到“Doctors used to look at us like,‘What spaceship did you guys get off ?’ Now theyre thirsty to know more.”和选项B的内容相反。选项A在原文的第1段提到“But according to a new American Medical Association pollthree out of four are eager to change thatThe field is exploding’,says Michael Smolensky.”,所以A正确。选项C在原文第1段“And their insights are yielding new strategies for keeping away such common killers as heart disease and cancer.”提到。选项D在文章的第2段和第3段都有提到。

65.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】主旨判断

【解析过程】本文的标题可以是       

A. 医药是万能的                       B. 治疗是万能的

C. 选择适宜的时间是万能的             D. 预防是万能的

整篇文章主要是讨论调整时间对于用药的积极意义,所以选项C是正确答案。

Part Cloze Test

音乐有不同的形式,大多数国家都有自己的音乐风格。   66   世纪之交爵士乐出现时,美国还没有自己主导的   67   。没有人准确地知道爵士乐什么时候   68   ,或者由谁创作的,但是它开始   69   20世纪初。爵士乐是美国对   70   音乐的贡献。与古典音乐比较,它   71   正式的欧洲传统。爵士乐是自发的和形式无拘束的。它随着能量流淌,

   72   人们的情绪、兴趣和感情。1920年爵士乐   73   像美国,并且   74   现在也是这样。这   75   音乐的和音乐一样有趣   76   。美国黑人,现在我们这样称呼,是爵士乐

   77   。他们被带到南方的州   78   奴隶。他们被卖给农场主并且被迫工作长   79   。当黑人死了,他的朋友和亲属   80   一个队伍把尸体搬到墓地。在新奥尔良,乐队经常伴随

   81   。在去墓地的路上,乐队奏着低缓、庄严适合这种场合的音乐。   82   回去的路上情绪改变了,精神提高了。死亡已经去除了他们的   83   ,但是生存者要快乐地活着。乐队演奏   84   音乐,即兴表演和谐的和悦耳的音调   85   在葬礼。这种音乐使每个人产生跳舞的冲动。这是爵士乐的一种最早形式。

66.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】惯用衔接

【考点剖析】四个选项都可以表示时间,但用法不同。By表示期限,“在……之前”;At“在”表示地点或时间时均指一点;in表示一段时间,“在……之后,过……后”;on表示特定的日子。at the turn of the century是习惯用法,意为“世纪之交”。

67.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】song“歌曲”;melody“悦耳的音调”;style“风格、特色”;music“音乐”。前面谈到多数国家都有自己独特的音乐,而美国却没有……,显然是在说music,所以选A

68.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】discovered“发现,发觉”,一般指发现已存在或客观存在但尚不为人知的事物;acted“表演”;designed“设计”;invented“发明,创造”。根据文章的意思我们发现爵士乐是在生活中逐步产生、发展和定型的,所以选择C

69.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】noticed“注意到,注意”;found“发现”;listened“听”;heard“听到”。由于动词后面跟爵士乐作为宾语,所以不能用不及物动词listened;由于前面谈到没有人知道爵士乐什么时候被发现,所以不能用foundnoticed。故只能选D

70.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】classical“古典的,古典文学的”;sacred“神圣的,宗教的”;light“明亮的”;popular“流行的”。根据我们平时的知识积累,不难发现爵士乐是流行音乐的一种,所以爵士乐的产生对流行音乐的发展有很大贡献。

71.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】forms“形成,构成”;follows“追随,遵循”;approaches“接近,靠近”;introduces“介绍,提出”。根据常识,西方音乐起源于欧洲,西方古典音乐自然要遵循欧洲的传统,所以选B

72.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】expressing“表达,快递”;explaining“解释,说明”;exposing“暴露,揭露”;illustrating“图解,阐明”。根据常识,各种文艺形式都是用以表达思想、观点和感情的,爵士也是这样,所以选择A

73.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】appeared“出现,发表”;felt“感觉到”;seemed“好像,似乎”;sounded“听起来,回响”。jazz是一种音乐,音乐自然是被听到的,所以选sounded。另外,当时爵士乐的特点反映了美国社会,所以听起来像美国社会的特点,也可由此推断选D

74.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】逻辑衔接

【考点剖析】as“因为,由于”;so“因此,那么”;either“或者,也”;neither“既不,又不”。由and可以推测句子是顺节关系,可以排除eitherneither。根据题干意思,现在爵士乐仍然代表美国的特色,所以选B

75.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】origins“起源,由来”;originals“原物,原件(作)”;discoveries“发现,发明的东西”;resources“资源,办法”。下文是讲爵士乐是怎样产生的,根据上下文意思,应该选择A

76.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】concerned“关心的,有关的”;itself“它本身,它自己”;available“可得到的,可利用的”;oneself“自己,亲自”。concernedavailable是形容词,修饰名词时一般放在名词的前面,故排除这两个;oneselfitself是反身代词,但是oneself是泛指,所以选择B

77.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】players“比赛者,演员”;followers“追随者,信徒”;fans“狂热者,爱好者”;pioneers“先驱,倡导者”。根据语境,上面是讲爵士乐的起源,那么首先涉及的是爵士乐的先驱,所以选D

78.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】for“为了,因为”;as“被看做,当做”;with“关于,用”;by“通过,依据”。根据历史常识,非洲黑人和奴隶是等同关系,所以选择B

79.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】months“月”;weeks“周”;hours“小时”;times“时期,次”。根据题意,他们被卖给庄园主,被迫长时间地劳作,所以选C

80.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】固定搭配

【考点剖析】demonstrated“示范,论证”;composed“组成,写作”;hosted“主办,主持”;formed“形成”。四个词中只有formedprocession能够搭配,formed a procession表示“行列,队伍”,所以选择D

81.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】demonstration“示范,实证”;procession“行列,队伍”;body“身体,团体”:march“行军,前进”。上句谈到送葬者组成队伍送葬,那么下句无疑是表示乐队为送葬的队伍伴奏,所以选择B

82.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】逻辑衔接

【考点剖析】Even“甚至,即使”;Therefore“因此,所以”;Furthermore“所以,而且”;But“但是”。前文讲去墓地途中乐队演奏庄严肃穆的音乐,而从墓地返回时人们的情绪发生了转变,很明显是转折关系,所以选D

83.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】number“数字,数量,总体”;members“成员,会员”;body“肉体,身体”;relations“联系,亲戚”。首先排除relations,因为上文提到参加葬礼的有朋友;body是单数,用在这里不合适;number强调整体,members强调个体,所以在这里应选A

84.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】sad“悲哀的,忧愁的”;solemn“庄严的,严肃的”;happy“快乐的,高兴的”;funeral“出殡,葬礼”。此句表转折关系,选C,参考第82题,不再赘述。

85.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】动宾搭配题

【考点剖析】whistled“吹口哨,鸣汽笛”;sung“唱”;presented“上演,呈现”;showed“展览,出示”。只有presented能与melody搭配,故选C

Paper Two试卷二

Part Error Detection and Correction

1.    【正确答案】C,改为“ourselves”。

【句子翻译】显然我们搞错了方向,因为我们转错了弯,迷路了,不知道该走哪条路。

【考点类型】反身代词

【考点剖析】自己发现自己迷路,应用反身代词。

【考点扩展】反身代词

反身代词是一种表示强调或反射的代词。它表示反射是指一个动作回射到该动作的执行者本身,即主语和宾语为同一人或物时,要用反身代词。反身代词可以作宾语或同位语。

2.    【正确答案】C,改为“harder”。

【句子翻译】过高估计语言在交流中的作用的确很难,不过过高估计思维方式的作用更难。

【考点类型】比较级

【考点剖析】even修饰形容词和副词时,后面通常是比较级的形式。

【考点扩展】可用于比较级的副词:a littlea bitslightlya great deala lotmanymuch等用于比较级表示不定量;farcompletelyeven等用于比较级前表示程度或更进一步。

3.    【正确答案】B,改为“important”。

【句子翻译】随着传真和计算机的发明,英语写作在商务英语中显得越来越重要。

【考点类型】系动词

【考点剖析】become是系动词,后面接形容词作表语。

【考点扩展】类似的系动词有growgetturnstaykeepremainlookseemfeel等。

4.    【正确答案】B,改为“be used”或者“should be used”。

【句子翻译】由于邮局每天需要处理大量邮件,有必要采用机械方法来维持生产和保证邮件及时投递。

【考点类型】虚拟语气

【考点剖析】it is essential that用在主语从句中,谓语动词用原形或should + 动词原形。

【考点扩展】类似的结构还有It is important / imperative / urgent / vital / necessary / advisable that等。

5.    【正确答案】C,改为“which”。

【句子翻译】文森特·凡·高自杀时仅37岁,但是却留下了2000多幅油画和素描作品,这些作品以他从来没有想到的方式奠定了他的声誉。

【考点类型】非限制性定语从句

【考点剖析】在非限制性定语从句中,关系代词不能用that,只能用which

【考点扩展】限制性定语从句不能省去,否则句子意思不完整。这种定语从句与主句关系密切,中间没有逗号与主句隔开,它的作用是通过对特定对象的限定,起到区别于其他的作用。非限制性定语是对其先行词的进一步描述,它所描述的对象是已经确定了的,不需要再加以区别和限定,删去后也不影响主句的意思。

6.    【正确答案】D,改为“are”。

【句子翻译】实现这一梦想的障碍既不是技术方面的也不是商业方面的,这或许令人惊讶。

【考点类型】主谓一致

【考点剖析】复数名词作主语时,其谓语要用相应的复数形式。此句主语是obstacles,所以谓语用are

7.    【正确答案】B,改为“listed”。

【句子翻译】如果你用加拿大英文词典的话,你一定会发现其中既编有美式拼法,也有英式拼法,第一个词是大多数受过教育的加拿大人更喜欢的拼法。

【考点类型】过去分词

【考点剖析】list“列出,列上”,是及物动词。find后面是美式英语和英式英语,那么list在此用作宾语补足语,应该用过去分词。

【考点扩展】过去分词与现在分词的比较

一般来说,现在分词表主动意义,过去分词表被动意义。比如:an interesting book“一本有趣的书”;an interested reader“一个感兴趣的读者”。许多过去分词都是来自及物动词,但也有不少过去分词来自不及物动词,故无被动的含义。比如:advanced“先进的”;vanished“消失了的”。用作定语或表语时,现在分词表示动作未完成,过去分词则表示已完成。比如:developing country“发展中国家”;developed country“发达国家”。

8.    【正确答案】B,改为“would have disturbed”。

【句子翻译】窗帘把光线挡在了窗外,否则就会打扰病人。

【考点类型】虚拟语气

【考点剖析】由于“otherwise”后面的情况与过去的情况相反,并且句子中“otherwise”一词表示虚拟的语气,所以用“would have done”。

【考点扩展】虚拟语气的其他用法

1 It is important / necessary / desirable / imperative / advisable + that + should + 动词原形/ + should + have + 过去分词(should可省略)。比如:It is imperative that we should practice criticism and self-criticism.

2 It is desired / suggested / settled / proposed / requested/decided + that + should + 动词原形 / + should + have + 过去分词(should可省略)。比如:It is settled that you leave usthen?那么你离开我们已经定了?

3 I wish + 过去式 / 过去完成式。比如:We wish you had to our New Years party. 我们希望你能参加我们的新年联欢会。

4 主语 + demand / suggest / propose / request / order / arrange / desire + should + 动词原形/ + should + have + 过去分词(should可省略)。比如:The judge ordered that the prisoner should be remanded. 法官命令被告还押。

5 It is timethat+ 过去式。比如:It is time we went to be. 我们该去睡觉了。

6 主语 + think / expect / believe等的否定形式 + should + 动词原形。比如:I never thought he should refuse. 我没想到他会拒绝。

9.    【正确答案】C,改为“just as”。

【句子翻译】每种文化都有它们与众不同的观察、感觉、思考、表达和信仰方式,并且正像没有两个人在所有方面都是完全相同的一样,没有两种文化在所有方面是完全相同的。

【考点类型】同源词辨析

【考点剖析】likeas都有“像……一样”之意,like一般作介词,后面不能跟句子;而as可以作连词,所以此处应该改为just as

10.   【正确答案】C,改为“how”。

【句子翻译】根据麦克斯韦·马特的观点,我们的成功与否主要取决于我们对自己的了解,也就是我们如何看待自己。

【考点类型】句子结构分析

【考点剖析】在此处,最后一个句子是作depend on 中介词on的宾语,所以从句应该是陈述语序而不是疑问语序,所以去掉do

Part Translation

【参考译文】Environmental scientists said that it was vital of importance to conserve wildlife if our human beings wanted the earth to continue to support our survival. These experts added that we must understand the important relation between ourselves and wild animals and plants in this environmental supplying system. They indicated that nobody knows for sure which kind of these animals and plants will be useful for us in the future.

【结构分析】本段落一共有三个含有宾语从句的复合句。

1. 第一个句子中的宾语从句中还含有一个if引导的条件状语从句,即:“如果要使地球继续供养人类生存”,我们可以看出这个条件状语从句没有主语,翻译成英文时,可以把“人类”处理成主语,即:if our human beings wants the earth to support our survival。而主句则可以处理成“it is + adj. + to do sth.”的形式,即:it was vital to conserve wildlife

2. 第二句中的宾语从句的主要结构是:“我们 + 必须明白 + 重要联系”,“我们自己与野生动植物之间的”放置“重要联系”的后面,充当介词短语修饰名词。“在我们的整个环境供养系统中”放在最后,介词短语作状语,即:These experts added that we must understand the important relation between ourselves and wild animals and plants in this environmental supplying system

3. 第三句中的宾语从句中还含有一个宾语从句,由于这个宾语从句表示的是客观现实,所以尽管主句用过去时,从句则采用一般现在时。

【词义推敲】环境科学家:environmental scientistsenvironmentalist:环境论者,环境保护论者;environmentalism:环境保护主义。-ist:表……主义者,-ism:……主义。故后者不可用。

保护野生生物:conserve wildlife;野生生物的保护:conservation of wildlife

极为重要的:vital of importanceextremely importantvital 本身就有极其重要的、极为重要和不可缺少之意。此处采用(be+ of + importance用法更为正式,vitalimportance 的连用强调其重要性。

环境供养系统:environmental supplying system

……与……的重要联系:the fundamental relation between ... and ...;“relation”,表“联系,关联”。而relationship 则主要指“关系”,表状态。

有把握地:certainlysurelyfor sure 都表示“无疑,有把握地”意思。故都可选用。

指出:indicatepoint out 二者都可以接that引导的宾语从句。

Part Guided Writing

参考范文:

Why We Work

When we live in the worldwe all work for some reason or other. Different people have different attitudes towards work. Some people live to work. They devote themselves to their work. The aim for which they work is to realize the value of lifeto promote the development of society and to make more people live happy life. They make great contributions to society and at the same time they also find pleasure from their work.

On the contraryother people work to live. They regard work as a way of making a living. The purpose for which they work is to kill time or to make enough money to support themselves and their families. They often regard work as what they have to do. So they cant pick up pleasure and enjoyment from their work. Such peopleonce they can afford to support themselves and their familiesperhaps quit their work.

In my opinionwe shouldnt go to the extremes. Since we are members of societywe should do what we can to better it so that we can live in more comfortable and more convenient surrounding. Good life is an assurance of smooth work. Only when we realize this can we live happily and work well.

 

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