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1999年同等学力英语真题及答案
作者:佚名   来源:本站原创  日期:2009-12-4 9:33:35  点击数:

1999年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试

Paper One试卷一(90 minutes

Part Listening Comprehension20 minutes15 points)(略)

Part Vocabulary15 minutes15 points

Section A

DirectionsIn this section there are fifteen sentenceseach with one word or phrase underlined . Choose the one from the four choices marked ABC and D that best keeps the meaning of the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.

16.   Courageous people think quickly and act without hesitation.

A. complaint                   B. consideration            C. delay                       D. anxiety

17. I’ve only recently explored Shakespeare with profit and pleasure.

A. followed                 B. evaluated                 C. acted                       D. studied

18.   Hardly a week goes by without some advance in technology that would have seemed incredible 50 yeas ago.

A. hard to invent                                             B. hard to understand   

C. hard to imagine                                              D. hard to believe

19.   You have to pay a n premium for express delivery.

A. extra charge           B. extra price                      C. extra tip                  D. extra bonus

20.   Arriving anywhere with these possessionshe might just as easily put up for a month or a year for a single day.

A. arrange                   B. manage                   C. last                         D. stay

21.   The salesman approached the house cautiously when he saw the vicious dog at the door.

A. carefully                 B. deliberately                     C. nervously                D. bravely

22.   A new technological process may be employed to tap this abundant supply directly.

A. produce               B. reserve                    C. exploit                        D. search 

23.   An international treaty signed several years ago bans trade in plants and animal of endangered species.

A. forbids                            B. eliminates                C. promotes              D. protects

24.   It is not easy to remain tranquil when events suddenly change your life.

A. calm                    B. upset                      C. steady                         D. severe

25.   When faced with doubts from some advisers on the attempted invasionKennedy ignored them.

A. failed to understand                                         B. put up with

C. stood up for                                         D. refused to consider

Section B

DirectionsIn this sectionthere are ten incomplete sentences. For each sentence there are four choices marked ABC and D. Choose the one answer that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.

26.   Don’t_____while I’m talking. You can ask what you want later.

A. cut out                        B. cut in                         C. cut off                         D. cut down

27.   He misled management by giving it the idea that the older and more experienced men were not an_____but a liability.

A. assistance                    B. advantage                      C. asset                     D. award

28.   In 400 A.D. Chinese children played with a fan-like toy that span upwards and fell back to earth as_____ceased.

A. rotation                  B. suspension                      C. emission                  D. motivation

29.   As a good photographeryou must develop an awareness of the world around you and the people who_____ it.

A. innovate              B. inhabit                    C. integrate               D. inherit

30.   Children in the United States are exposed to many influences_____those of their families.

A. rather than                      B. better than             C. more than             D. other than

31.   The fact that the earth’s surface heats_____provides a convenient way to divide it into temperature regions.

A. unsteadily              B. unevenly                 C. infrequently             D. irregularly

32.   You may never experience an earthquake or a volcanic eruption in your lifebut you will____         changes in the land.

A. adapt                         B. adopt                             C. witness                D. define

33.   It is understood that the filming of Legends is almost complete and the film is not _____         to be delayed.

A. easy                              B. available                  C. great                       D. likely

34.   The first step before making any decision to_____was to determine exactly who did the killing.

A. interact                   B. integrate                  C. intervene                D. intensify

35.   The television station is supported by_____from foundations and other sources.

A. donations                B. advertisements         C. pensions                  D. accounts

Part Reading Comprehension45 minutes30 points

DirectionsThere are six passages in this part. Each passage is followed by five questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked ABC and D. Choose the best answer and mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.

Passage One

Lateral thinking(迂回思维),first described by Edward de Bone in 1967is just a few years older than Edwards son. You might imagine that Caspar was raised to be an adventurous thinkerbut the de Bone was so famousCaspars parents worried that any time he would say something bright at schoolhis teachers might snap,“Where do you get that idea from?”

We had to be careful and not overdo it.Edward admits. Now Caspar is at Oxford-which once looked unlikely because he is also slightly dyslexic(诵读困难). In factwhen he was applying to Oxfordnone of his school teachers thought he had a chance.So then we did several thinking sessions,his father says,“using my techniques andwhen he went up for the examhe did extremely well.Soon afterEdward de Bone decided to write his latest book,“Teach Your Child How to Think”,in which he transforms the thinking skills he developed for brain-storming businessmen into informal exercises for parents and children to share.

Thinking is traditionally regarded as something executed in a logical sequenceand everybody knows that children arent very logical. So isnt it an uphill battletrying to teach them to think?“You know,”Edward de Bone says,“if you examine peoples thinkingit is quite unusual to find faults of logic. But the faults of perception are hugeOften we think ineffectively because we take too limited a view.

Teach Your Child How to Thinkoffers lessons in perception improvementof clearly seeing the implications of something you are saying and exploring the alternatives.

36.   What is TRUE about Caspar

A. He first described lateral thinking.                 B. He is often scolded by his teacher.

C. He is Edward’s son.                                      D. He is an adventurous thinker.

37.   Caspar succeeded in applying to Oxford because         .

A. he used in the exam the techniques provided by his father

B. he read the book“Teach Your Child How to think”before the exam

C. he was careful and often overworked

D. all of his school teachers thought he had a chance

38. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that Edward         .

A. was prompted to study lateral thinking because his son was slightly dyslexic

B. once taught businessmen how to think before he wrote for parents and children

C. was likely to improve children’s logic with his book

D. gave a description of lateral thinking several years after his son was born

39.   According to Paragraph 3which of the following statements expresses Edward de Bones view

A. We often think ineffectively because we take too limited a view.

B. Thinking is traditionally regarded as something executed in a logical sequence.

C. Everybody knows that children aren’t very logical.

D. It is an uphill battle trying to teach children to think.

40.   Lateral thinking refers to the following EXCEPT         .

A. seeing the implications of what you are saying

B. exploring the alternatives for what you are saying

C. improving one’s logic in thinking

D. improving one’s perception in thinking

Passage Two

For millions of years before the appearance of the electric lightshift workall-night cable TV and the Internetearths creatures evolved on a planet with predictable and reassuring 24-hour rhythms. Our biological clocks are set for this daily cycle. Simplyour bodies want to sleep at night and be awake during the day. Most women and men need between eight and eight and a half hours of sleep a night to function properly throughout their lives.Contrary to popular beliefhumans dont need less sleep as they age.

But on averageAmericans sleep only about seven and a half hour per nighta marked drop from the nine hours they averaged in 1910. Whats worsenearly one third of all Americans get less than six hours of sleep on a typical work night. For most peoplethats not nearly enough.

Finding ways to get more and better sleep can be a challenge. Scientists have identified more than 80 different sleep disorders. Some sleeping disorders are genetic. But many problems are caused by staying up late and by traveling frequently between time zone or by working nights. Dr. James F. Jones at National Jewish Medical and Research Center in Denver says that sleep disorders are often diagnosed as other discomforts. About one third of the patients referred to him with possible chronic fatigue syndrome actually have treatable sleep disorders.Before we do anything elsewe look at their sleep.Jones says.

Sleep experts say that most people would benefit from a good look at their sleep patterns.My motto(座右铭)isSleep defensively.says Mary Carskadon of Brown University. She says people need to carve out sufficient time to sleepeven if it means giving up other things. Sleep routines-like going to bed and getting up at the same time every day-are important. Pre-bedtime activities also make a difference. As with Elsnerwho used to suffer from sleeplessnessa few life style changesavoiding stimulants and late mealsexercising hours before bedtimerelaxing with a hot bathyield better sleep.

41.   What is TRUE of human sleep

A. On averagepeople in the U. S. today sleep less per night than they used to.

B. For most peopleless than six hours of sleep on a typical work night is enough.

C. Most people need less sleep when they grow older.

D. Most people need seven and a half hems of sleep every night.

42.   For our bodies to function properlywe should         .

A. adjust our activities to the new inventions

B. be able to predict the rhythms of our biological clocks

C. sleep for at least eight hours per night

D. believe that we need less sleep as we age

43.   According to the authormany sleeping disorders are caused by         .

A. improper sleep patterns                                 B. chronic fatigue syndrome

C. other diseases                                               D. pre-bedtime exercises

44.   Which of the following measures can help you sleep better

A. Having late meals.                                       B. Traveling between time zones.

C. Staying up late.                                            D. Taking a hot bath.

45.   “Sleep defensively”means that         .

A. people should sacrifice other things to getting enough sleep if necessary

B. people should give up going to bed and getting up at the same time every day

C. people should go to a doctor and have their problems diagnosed

D. people should exercise immediately before going to bed every night

Passage Three

The media can impact current events. As a graduate student at Berkeley in the 1960sI remember experiencing the events related to the Peoples Park that were occurring on campus. Some of these events were given national media coverage in the press and on TV. I found it interesting to compare my impressions of what was going on with perceptions obtained from the news media. I could begin to see events of that time feed on news coverage. This also provided me with some healthy insights into the distinctions between these realities.

Electronic media are having a greater impact on the peoples lives every day. People gather more and more of their impressions from representations. Television and telephone communications are linking people to a global villageor what one writer calls the electronic city. Consider the information that television brings into your home every day. Consider also the contact you have with others simply by using telephone. These media extend your consciousness and your contact. For examplethe video coverage of the 1989 San Francisco earthquake focused on“live action”such as the fires or the rescue efforts. This gave the viewer the impression of total disaster. Television coverage of the Iraqi War also developed an immediacy. CNN reported events as they happened. This coverage was distributed worldwide. Although most people were far away from these eventsthey developed some perception of these realities.

In 1992many people watched in horror as riots broke out on a sad Wednesday evening in Los Angelesseemingly fed by video coverage from helicopters. This event was triggered by the verdict(裁定)in the Rodney King beating. We are now in an age where the public can have access to information that enables it to make its own judgmentsand most peoplewho had seen the video of this beatingcould not understand how the jury(陪审团)was able to acquit(宣布无罪)the policemen involved. Media coverage of events as they occur also provides powerful feedback that influences events. This can have harmful resultsas it seemed on that Wednesday night in Los Angeles. By Friday night the public got to see Rodney King on television pleading,“Can we all get along?”By Saturdaytelevision seemed to provide positive feedback as the Los Angeles riot turned out into a rally for peace. The television showed thousands of people marching with banners and cleaning tools. Because of thatmany more people turned out to join the peaceful event they saw unfolding(展开)on television. The real healingof coursewill take much longerbut electronic media will continue to be a part of that process.

46.   The best title for the passage is         .

A. The 1989 San Francisco Earthquake and the 1992 Los Angeles Riots

B. How Media Cover Events

C. The 1992 Los Angeles Riots

D. The Impact of Media on Current Events

47.   All the following statements are true EXCEPT that         .

A. all the events occurring on the university campus at Berkeley were given national media coverage

B. video coverage of the 1989 San Francisco earthquake gave the viewers the impression of total disaster

C. electronic media can extend one’s contact with the world

D. those living far away from a certain event can also have some perception of realities by watching television

48.   The term“electronic city”in Paragraph 2 refers to         .

A. Berkeley                                                     B. Earth

C. Los Angeles                                                 D. San Francisco

49.   The 1992 Los Angeles riots broke out because         .

A. video coverage from helicopters had made people angry

B. video coverage had provided powerful feedback

C. the jury acquitted the policemen who had beaten Rodney King

D. people can make their own judgements

50.   It can be inferred from the passage that        .

A. the 1992 Los Angeles riots lasted a whole week

B. Rodney King seemed very angry when he appeared on television on Friday

C. media coverage of events as they occur can have either good or bad results

D. most people who had seen the video of the Rodney King beating agree with the verdict of the jury

Passage Four

At the Kyoto conference on global warming in December 1997it became abundantly clear how complex it has become to work out international agreements relating to the environment because of economic concerns unique to each country. It is no longer enough to try to forbid certain activities or to reduce emissions of certain substances. The global challenges of the interlink between the environment and development increasing bring us to the core of the economic life of states. During the late 1980s we were ablethrough international agreementsto make deep cuts in emissions harmful to the ozone layer. These reductions were made possible because substitutions had been found for many of the harmful chemicals andmore importantbecause the harmful substances could be replaced without negative effects on employment and the economies of states.

Although the threat of global warming has been known to the world for decades and all countries and leaders agree that we need to deal with the problemwe also know that the effects of measuresespecially harsh measures taken in some countrieswould be nullified(抵消)if other countries do not control their emissions. Whereas the UN team on climate change has found that the emissions of carbon dioxide would have to be cut globally by 60% to stabilize the content of COin the atmospherethis path is not feasible for several reasons. Such deep cuts would cause a breakdown of the world economy. Important and populous(人口众多的)low-or medium-income countries are not yet willing to undertake legal commitments about their energy uses. In additionthe state of world technology would not yet permit us to make such a big leap.

We musthoweverfind a solution to the threat of global warming early in the 21st century. Such a commitment would require a degree of shared vision and common responsibilities new to humanity. Success lies in the force of imaginationsin imagining what would happen if we fail to act. Although many living in cold regions would welcome the global-warming effect of a warmer summerfew would cheer the arrival of the subsequent tropical diseasesespecially where there had been none.

51.   The main purpose of this passage is to         .

A. analyze the problem of global warming

B. argue against making deep cuts in emissions

C. convince people that global warming is a real threat

D. criticize some countries for refusing to cut down emissions harmful to the ozone layer

52.   The reason why it is difficult to get rid of the threat of global warming is that         .

A. not all the countries are willing to make deep cuts in emissions

B. many people welcome the global-warming effect of a warmer summer

C. the leaders of many countries are not fully aware of the gravity of the problem

D. world technology is not able to solve the problem

53.   In the passage the author implies that         .

A. the world has recently become aware of the threat of global warming

B. the problem of global warming has largely been solved

C. it is always difficult to work out international agreements to cut down emission harmful to the ozone layer

D. it is no longer easy to reach international agreements relating to the environment

54.   According to the authorit is impossible at present to cut 60% of carbon dioxide emissions globally because         .

A. some people are irresponsible

B. it would cause a collapse of the world economy

C. it is only a goal to be reached in the future

D. some people are lacking in imagination

55.   What should all countries do to help solve the problem of global warming

A. They should hold another world conference on climate change.

B. They should provide advanced technology.

C. They should replace all the harmful substances.

D. They should willingly undertake legal commitments about their energy uses.

Passage Five

The word science is heard so often in modern times that almost everybody has some notion of its meaning. On the other handits definition is difficult for many people. The meaning of the term is confusedbut everyone should understand its meaning and objectives. Just to make the explanation as simple as possiblesuppose science is defined as classified knowledge facts.

Even in the true sciences distinguishing fact from fiction is not always easy. For this reason great care should be taken to distinguish between beliefs and truths. There is no danger as long as a clear difference is made between temporary and proved explanations. For examplehypotheses(假设)and theories are attempts to explain natural phenomena. From these positions the scientist continues to experiment and observe until they are proved or discredited(使不相信). The exacts status of any explanation should be clearly labeled to avoid confusion.

The objectives of science are primarily the discovery and the subsequent understanding of the unknown. Man cannot be satisfied with recognizing that secrets exist in nature or that questions are unanswerablehe must solve them. Toward that end specialists in the field of biology and related fields of interest are directing much of their time and energy.

Actuallytwo basic approaches lead to the discovery of new information. Oneaimed at satisfying curiosityis referred to as pure science. The other is aimed at using knowledge for specific purposefor instanceimproving healthraising standards of livingor creating new consumer products. In this case knowledge is put to economic use. Such an approach is referred to as applied science.

Sometimes practical-minded people miss the point of pure science in thinking only of its immediate application for economic rewards. Chemists responsible for many of the discoveries could hardly have anticipated that their findings would one day result in applications of such a practical nature as those directly related to life and death. The discovery of one bit of information opens the door to the discovery of another. Some discoveries seem so simple that one is amazed they were not made years agohoweverone should remember that the construction of the microscope had to precede the discovery of the cell. The host of scientists dedicating their lives to pure science are not apologetic(抱歉)about ignoring the practical side of their discoveriesthey know from experience that most knowledge is eventually applied.

56.   To define science we may simply call it         .

A. the study of unrelated fields

B. classified knowledge

C. the study of unrelated subjects

D. an attempt to explain natural phenomena

57.   Pure scienceleading to the construction of a microscope        .

A. is not always as pure as we suppose

B. necessarily results from applied science and the discovery of a cell

C. may lead to antiscientific,“impureresults

D. necessarily precedes applied scienceleading to the discovery of the cell

58.   A scientist interested in adding to our general knowledge about oxygen would probably call his approach         .

A. pure science                                                B. environmental science

C. applied science                                             D. agricultural science

59.   Which of the following statements does the author imply

A. In scienceit is not difficult to distinguish fact from fiction.

B. Practical-minded people can understand the meaning and objectives of pure science.

C. Scientists engaged in the theoretical research should not be blamed for ignoring the practical side of their discoveries.

D. Today few people have any nation of the meaning of science.

60.   The best title for the passage is        .

A. Hypotheses and Theories                               B. On Distinguishing Fact from Fiction

C. The Nature of Science and Scientists              D. Biology and the Scientific Age

Passage Six

With the possible exception of equal rightsperhaps the most controversial issue across the United States today is the death penalty. Many argue that it is an effective deterrent(威慑)to murderwhile others maintain there is no convincing evidence that the death penalty reduces the number of murders.

The principal argument advanced by those opposed to the death penaltybasicallyis that it is cruel and inhuman punishmentthat it is the mark of a brutal societyand finally that it is of questionable effectiveness as a deterrent to crime anyway.

In our opinionthe death penalty is a necessary evil. Throughout recorded history there have always been those extreme individuals in every society who were capable of terribly violent crimes such as murder. But some are more extreme than others.

For exampleit is one thing to take the life of another in a fit of blind ragebut quite another to coldly plot and carry out the murder of one or more people in the style of a butcher. Thusmurderlike all other crimesis a matter of relative degree. While it could be argued with some conviction that the criminal in the first instance should be merely isolated from societysuch should not be the fate of the latter type murderer.

The value of the death penalty as a deterrent to crime may be open to debate. But the overwhelming majority of citizens believe that the death penalty protects them. Their belief is reinforced by evidence which shows that the death penalty deters murder. For examplefrom 1954 to1963when the death penalty was consistently imposed in Californiathe murder rate remained between three and four murders for each 100000 population. Since 1964 the death penalty has been imposed only onceand the murder rate has risen to 10.4 murders for each 100000 population. The sharp climb in the states murder ratewhich began when executions stoppedis no coincidence. It is convincing evidence that the death penalty does deter many murderers. If the bill reestablishing the death penalty is vetoedinnocent people will be murderedsome whose lives may have been saved if the death penalty were in effect. This is literally a life or death matter. The lives of thousands of innocent people must be protected.

61.   The principal purpose of this passage is to         .

A. speak for the majority                                  B. initiate a veto

C. criticize the government                                D. argue for the value of the death penalty

62.   The passage attempts to establish a relationship between         .

A. the murder rate and the imposition of the death penalty

B. the effects of execution and the effects of isolation

C. the importance of equal rights and that of the death penalty

D. executions and murders

63.   The author’s response to those who urge the death penalty for all degrees of murder would most likely be         .

A. negative                     B. friendly                    C. supportive                 D. hostile

64.   In the passage the author is primarily concerned with         .

A. analyzing a problem objectively                           B. settling a dispute

C. supporting a position                                    D. describing an event

65.   It can be inferred that the author thinks that         .

A. the death penalty is the most controversial issue in the United States today

B. the second type murderersin Paragraph 4should be sentenced to death

C. the veto of the bill reestablishing the death penalty is of little importance

D. the value of the death penalty as a deterrent to crime is not to be debated

Part Cloze10 minutes10 points

DirectionsIn this partthere is a passage with twenty blanks. For each blank there are four choices marked ABC and D. Choose the best answer for each blank and mark the corresponding letter on your ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.

 Whats your earliest childhood memoryCan you remember learning to walkOr talkThe first time you    66   thunder or watched a television programAdults seldom    67    events much earlier than the year or so before entering schooljust as children younger than three or four    68    retain any specificpersonal experiences. A variety of explanations have been    69    by psychologists for thischildhood amnesia”(儿童失忆症). One argues that the hippocampusthe region of the brain which is responsible for forming memoriesdoes not mature    70    about the age of two. But the most popular theory    71    thatsince adults do not think like childrenthey cannot    72    childhood memories. Adults think in wordsand their life memories are like stories or    73    -one event follows    74    as in a novel or film. But when they search through their mental    75    for early childhood memories to add to this verbal life storythey dont find any that fits the    76   . Its like trying to find a Chinese word in an English dictionary.

Now psychologist Annette Simms of the New York State University offers a new    77    for childhood amnesia. She argues that there simply    78    any early childhood memories to recall. According to Dr. Simmschildren need to learn to use    79    spoken description of their personal experiences in order to turn their own short-termquickly    80    impressions of them into long-term memories. In other    81   children have to talk about their experiences and hear others talk about    82   . Mother talking about the afternoon    83    looking for seashells at the beach or Dad asking them about their day at Ocean Park. Without this    84    reinforcementsays Dr. Simmschildren cannot form    85    memories of their personal experiences.

66.   A. listened                    B. felt                       C. touched                 D. heard

67.   A. involve                  B. interpret                    C. recall                      D. resolve

68.   A. largely                          B. rarely                    C. merely                   D. really

69.   A. canceled                 B. figured                   C. proposed          D. witnessed

70.   A. until                            B. once                      C. after                            D. since

71.   A. magnifies                B. intervenes         C. contains                  D. maintains

72.   A. reflect                   B. attain                    C. access                    D. refer

73.   A. narratives                B. forecasts                    C. regulations                  D. descriptions

74.   A. the rest                  B. another                    C. the other          D. others

75.   A. outputs                  B. dreams                    C. flashes                    D. files

76.   A. footstep                  B. pattern                    C. frame                     D. landscape

77.   A. emphasis                 B. arrangement       C. explanation        D. factor

78.   A. aren’t                    B. weren’t                  C. isn’t                      D. wasn’t

79.   A. anyone else               B. anyone else’s        C. some else           D. someone else’s

80.   A. forgotten                B. remembered       C. forgetting                 D. remembering

81.   A. senses                    B. cases                     C. words                   D. means

82.   A. him                      B. theirs                     C. it                               D. them

83.   A. used                            B. chosen                    C. taken                     D. spent

84.   A. habitual                  B. verbal                     C. pretty                     D. mutual

85.   A. permanent                B. conscious           C. subordinate                 D. spiritual

Paper Two试卷二(60 minutes

Part Error Detection and Correction10 minutes10 points

DirectionsEach of the following sentences has four underlined parts. These parts are marked ABC and D. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect. Thenwrite down the corresponding letter andwithout altering the meaning of the sentenceput the correction on the ANSWER SHEET.

1. It is the interaction between peoplerather than the events that occur in their lives that are the

                    A               B                                   C

main focus of social psychology.

            D

2. It is very hard to believe that when Lincoln was borncommunications were a little faster than

   A                     B                                        C

in the days of Julius Caesar.

     D

3. Although we had been present at roughly the same timeMr. Brown saw the situation quite

     A                     B

different from the way I saw it.

     C          D

4. Some of these studies have shown that although some people have trouble to fall asleepothers

                        A                                         B

have an equally difficult time waking up.

           C                  D

5. Never before I have seen anyone who has the skill John has when he repairs cars.

               A               B              C            D

6. Should John resign and Henry succeed himwe would have had a more vigorous leadership.

    A                        B                 C         D

7. Historicallyno artists have presented clearer or the more complete records of the development

                           A                B              C

of human culture than sculptors have.

                           D

8. Although the police are given considerable authority by society to enforce its lawsthey get a

                   A                                          B

relatively low salary as compared with that of other occupational groups which have much fewer

C                                         D

authority.

9. Thirteen hundred medical professionalsall of which have been trained to treat drug

        A                               B

dependencyattended the annual convention sponsored by a society.

               C                         D

10. More than three years after moving from Australia to this remote point of Englandwe are still

      A                                            B                        C

learning how things have done here.

                      D

Part Translation20 minutes10 points

DirectionsTranslate the following passage into English. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.

别人吸烟,你吸入,确实会对你的肺有危害。据美国“肺协”估计,每年约有3000名死于肺癌的人是被动吸烟者。有一项调查发现,不吸烟的妇女,如果在吸烟的家庭环境中生活40年或更长的时间,那么就有加倍患肺癌的危险。

Part Guided Writing30 minutes15 points

DirectionsFor this partyou are to write a composition of no less than 120 words on The Qualities of the Cross-Century Talents. You should write according to the three-points outline given below. Please write it clearly on the ANSWER SHEET.

Outline

1. 跨世纪人才应具备哪些素质;

2. 为什么需要具备这些素质;

3. 怎样才能成为跨世纪人才。

1999年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题答案与解析

Paper One试卷一(90 minutes

Part Listening Comprehension(略)

Part Vocabulary

Section A

16.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】有勇气的人行动迅速并且毫不犹豫。

【考点类型】近义复现

【考点剖析】complaint“抱怨,抗议”;consideration“考虑”;delay“耽搁,延迟”;anxiety“渴望,忧虑”。quickly修饰动词think,而且thinkact是并列关系,由此判断应选与quickly以及without hesitation近义的词,所以选delay

17.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】我最近才开始研究莎士比亚,它让我大有收益且极富乐趣。

【考点类型】动宾搭配

【考点剖析】follow“听从,跟随”;evaluate“评估”;act“行动”。根据语义可以推测explored意为“探索”,所以选择study“研究,探讨”。

18.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】几乎每周都会在技术上取得一些突破,这在50年前是难以置信的。

【考点类型】后者总结说明前者

【考点剖析】hard to invent“难以发明的”;hard to understand“难以理解的”;hard to imagine“难以想象的”;incredible“难以置信的”,所以选择“hard to believe”。

19.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】你必须交特快专递的额外费用。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】extra charge“额外收费”;extra price“额外代价”;extra tip“额外小费”;extra bonus“额外津贴”。根据express delivery可以判断premium意为额外费用,所以选“extra charge”。

20.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】带着这么多财产,不管到什么地方待一个月或者一年,对他来说都像一天那么容易。

【考点类型】同义复现

【考点剖析】arrange“安排”;manage“管理,处理”;last“持续”;stay“暂住,坚持”。根据前文的arrive,可以推测put up意为“住,待”,所以选stay

21.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】当他看到门边的恶狗时,推销员小心翼翼地接近了房子。

【考点类型】因果关系

【考点剖析】carefully“认真地”;deliberately意为“故意地”;nervously意为“紧张地”;bravely意为“勇敢地”。据恶狗可以推测cautiously意为“小心地”,应选同义词carefully

22.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】新的技术可以用来直接大量开发这种供应品。

【考点类型】动宾搭配

【考点剖析】produce“生产,制造”;reserve“储备,保留”;exploit“开采,剥削”;search“调查”。从题可知,应用新技术的目的在于tap this supply,推测tap意为“开发,利用”,所以选同义词exploit

23.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】几年前签署的一项国际条约禁止濒危植物和动物的交易。

【考点类型】动宾搭配

【考点剖析】forbid“禁止”;eliminate“消灭”;promote“促进”;protect“保护”。根据常识,濒危动植物当然是禁止交易。

24.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】当某些事情突然改变你的命运时,你很难保持平静。

【考点类型】因果关系

【考点剖析】calm“平静的”;upset“难受的”;steady“镇定的”;severe“严重的”。由生活突然遭受改变和“not easy”可以推测应该选calm

25.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】面对一些顾问对试图进行的入侵行为质疑时,肯尼迪不予理睬。

【考点类型】动宾搭配

【考点剖析】fail to understand“无法理解”;put up with“忍受,忍耐”;stand up for “维护,辩护”;refuse to consider“拒绝考虑”。面对质疑的时候,肯尼迪会怎么做呢?可以推测出ignore意为“忽视”,所以选D

Section B

26.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】不要打断我说话,你可以稍后再说。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】cut out“割去,删除”;cut in“插嘴,打断”;cut off“阻隔,隔绝”;cut down“砍倒,降低”。后一句补充说明前一句,推测出应该为不要插嘴。所以选B

27.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】他告诉管理层说那些年纪大且富有经验的人是一种负担而不是财富,从而误导了管理层。

【考点类型】反义复现

【考点剖析】assistance“帮助,协助”;advantage“优点,利益”;asset“资产,有用的东西”;award“奖品”。not ... but意为“不是……而是”,根据liability可以推测出应选asset

28.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】公元400年,中国的儿童玩一种像扇子一样的玩具,它升入空中,当旋转停止时就掉回地面。

【考点类型】同义复现

【考点剖析】rotation“旋转”;suspension“悬浮,暂停”;emission“散发”;motivation “激发”。所填词应与像扇子一样的玩具相对应,所以应选rotation

29.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】作为一位优秀的摄影师,你必须培养一种对于你周围的世界和人的一种意识。

【考点类型】动宾搭配

【考点剖析】innovate“创新,改革”;inhabit“居住于,存在于”;integrate“整合”;inherit“继承”。peopleworld的关系只能是居住,所以选inhabit

30.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】美国的儿童除了受到家庭的影响,还受到很多影响。

【考点类型】逻辑衔接

【考点剖析】rather than“不顾”;better than“比……更好”;more than“比……更多”;other than“不同于”。根据句子的逻辑关系,可以确定应该选other than

31.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】地球表面受热不均的事实使人们很容易把地球划分为温度带。

【考点类型】因果关系

【考点剖析】unsteadily“不稳定地”;unevenly“不均衡地”;infrequently“少有地”;irregularly“没有规律地”。只有在温度不同的情况下,才能划分为温度带,所以选unevenly

32.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】可能你从未经历过地震或者火山爆发,但你将会注意到陆地的变化。

【考点类型】同义复现

【考点剖析】adapt“改变,适应”;adopt“采纳,收养”;witness“目击,见证”;define“定义”。存在but,所以前后句是转折关系,所以应与experience相对应,选witness

33.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】据说电影 《传奇故事》 的拍摄工作接近尾声了,这部电影的上映不太可能被推迟。

【考点类型】因果关系

【考点剖析】easy“容易的”;available“可利用的”;great“伟大的”;likely“可能的”。前半句中表明已经接近完成,所以逻辑上不太可能推迟,选likely

34. 【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】在做决定进行干预的第一步是确切地了解谁杀了人。

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】interact“相互作用”;integrate“整合,综合”;intervene“干涉”;intensify“增加强度”。

35.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】电视台由基金会及其他来源所赞助。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】donation“捐款”;advertisements“广告,宣传”;pensions“养老金,津贴”;accounts“账户”。由语境易知,应选donations

Part Reading Comprehension50 minutes30 Points

Passage One

“迂回思维”是在1967七年首先由爱德华·德·波恩进行描述的,这种思维只比他的儿子早诞生几年。你可能想象:卡斯泊会被培养成一名具有冒险精神的思想家;但是,德·波恩家族太有名了,卡斯泊的父母担心:不管什么时候他在学校可能说出一些聪明的话,老师都会严厉地问他,“你的这种想法是从哪得来的?”

“我们不得不非常小心,以免做得过度。”爱德华承认。现在,卡斯泊在牛津大学读书,这曾经看上去不大可能,因为他患有轻微的诵读困难症。事实上,当他申请报考牛津大学时,学校的老师没有一个人认为他有机会。“所以,我们当时做了很多思维训练”,他的父亲说,“应用我的方法,当他去参加考试时,他发挥得非常好。”不久,爱德华·德·波恩决定写他的最新的书籍 《教育你的孩子如何思考》。在书中,他把他开发出来的用于培养足智多谋的商人的思维技巧转化成家长和孩子共同参与的非常规训练。

传统上,思维是按照一定的逻辑顺序所执行的活动,人人都知道,孩子不太有逻辑性。因此,试图教孩子去思考不正是一场艰难的战斗吗?“你知道,”爱德华·德·波恩说,“如果你研究人们的思维,发现逻辑错误是很不一般的。但是,关于概念的错误却非常多!通常我们怎么思考都没有结果,就是因为我们的视野受到限制。”《教育你的孩子如何思考》 在提高理解力方面提供了一些课程,怎样清楚地表达自己所说的话的含义,怎样找到可供选择的办法。

36. 【正确答案】C

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】关于卡斯泊哪句属实?

A. 他首先描述了迂回思维。

B. 他经常被老师责备。

C. 他是爱德华的儿子。

D. 一位有冒险精神的思想家。

线索:文章的第1段提到“You might imagine that Caspar was raised to be an adventurous thinkerbut the de Bone was so famous.”表明了他们的父子关系。选项A和原文不符合,原文说的是他的父亲研究迂回思维。B选项本文没有提到。D选项也混淆了他和他父亲的身份。

【考点提示】首题对应首段的内容。文章涉及N个人物的时候,注意不同人物的关系还有特征,有可能在这些点上出题。

37. 【正确答案】A

【考点类型】因果关系             

【解析过程】卡斯泊成功地申请到了牛津大学,因为       

A. 他使用了父亲教给他的方法

B. 在考试前他读了 《教你的孩子如何思考》 一书

C. 他很细心并且学习努力

D. 他学校的所有老师认为他有一个机会

线索:文章的第2段提到“using my techniques andwhen he went up for the exam.”表明A是正确答案。B选项和原文的内容不符合,是在他考试完之后,他的父亲在准备写《教你的孩子如何思考》 这本书。D选项和原文的内容相反“none of his school teachers thought he had a chance.

【考点提示】注意信息之间的时间递进关系、因果关系、转折关系、总结关系、补充关系、强调关系等,这些是文章的考点。

38. 【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节推断             

【解析过程】从文章的第2段我们可以推论出爱德华       

A. 急于学习迂回思维因为他的孩子有一些诵读障碍

B. 在他为孩子和父母们写这本书之前曾经教商人如何去思考

C. 用他的书去提高孩子的逻辑思考能力

D. 在他孩子出生几年之后描绘了迂回思维

线索:文章的第2段提到“in which he transforms the thinking skills he developed for brain-storming businessmen into informal exercises for parents and children to share.”表明B是正确答案。A选项和原文的内容不符合,原文是说“Lateral thinking(迂回思维),first described by Edward de Bone in 1967is just a few years older than Edwards son.”早在他的孩子出生前,他就已经学习迂回思维。

【考点提示】推断指的是在原文的基础之上,对原文信息的再改写,所以不是从无到有的过程,这一点在解析推理题的过程中非常重要。

39.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】根据文章的第3段,下面哪句话表达了爱德华的观点?

A. 因为我们的观点有限所以我们经常思考效率不高。

B. 从传统意义上讲思考是以逻辑顺序实施的。

C. 每个人都知道孩子不是非常具有逻辑性的。

D. 试图去教孩子符合逻辑的思考是具有挑战性的。

线索:文章的第3段提到“But the faults of perception are huge Often we think inef-fectively because we take too limited a view.”表明选项A是正确答案。BC选项的内容在文章中提到了,但不是爱德华的观点,是一个传统的观点。

【考点提示】明确作者的观点和其他专家的观点非常重要。张冠李戴是出题老师在设计混淆选项时用的一种方法,所以同学们在阅读文章的时候要非常警惕这种陷阱。

40.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】细节排除             

【解析过程】迂回思考指的是下面几句话,除了       

A. 看到你说的内容的暗含意思

B. 寻找你说的内容的可选择说法

C. 提高人的逻辑思考能力

D. 提高人的观察力

线索1:文章的第4段提到,“ ...of clearly seeing the implications of something you are saying ...”选项A在原文提到。

线索2:文章的第4段提到,“...exploring the alternatives...”选项B在原文提到。

线索3:文章的第4段提到,“...Teach Your Child How to Thinkoffers lessons in perception improvement...”选项D在原文提到。

所以选项C是原文没有提到的内容。

Passage Two

在电灯、轮换工作、通宵有线电视和因特网出现之前的数百万年里,地球上的生物以可预言的、确定的24小时节奏演变进化着。我们的生物钟就是为这样的日常循环而设置的。简单地说,我们的身体需要在夜晚休息,白天清醒。大多数男女每天晚上需要八到八个半小时的休息时间以保证使他们的生活正常进行(与流行的观念相反,人并不是变老以后需要的睡眠就减少了)。

但是,美国人平均每晚的睡眠时间只有大约七个半小时,比1910年的平均九小时时间大大减少了,更糟的是,在典型的加班夜,几乎有1/3的美国人只有不到六个小时的睡眠时间。对于大多数人来说,那是远远不够的。

找到能够睡得更长、更好的方法可能是个挑战。科学家已经分辨出超过80种不同的睡眠紊乱症。有些睡眠紊乱症是遗传的。但是,许多问题是由于睡得太晚或经常在不同时差的地区之间旅行或上夜班导致的。在丹佛市国家犹太人医学和研究中心工作的詹姆斯·艾福·琼斯医生说,睡眠紊乱症常常被诊断为其他不适症。在他的那些可能患有慢性疲劳综合征的病人中,有1/3的人实际上患的是可治疗睡眠紊乱症。琼斯说:“在我们做任何其他事情之前,我们要先看一下他们的睡眠情况。”

睡眠专家说,大多数人可以从仔细观察自己的睡眠姿势中受益。布朗大学的玛丽卡斯克顿说:“我的座右铭是‘保护性地睡眠’。”人们需要足够的时间来睡觉,即使这意味着要放弃其他事情。睡眠安排,比如每天在相同的时间睡觉、起床非常重要。睡前的活动也会带来不同的影响。如以前遭受过失眠困扰的艾拉勒,改变了一些生活习惯,避免刺激性食物和吃夜宵,睡觉前运动几小时,洗个热水澡放松一下就会获得很好的睡眠。

41.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】关于人类睡眠下面哪句是对的?

A. 一般来讲,今天美国人睡的时间比他们过去要少。

B. 对大多数人来说,一个典型的加班工作少于6小时的睡眠是足够的。

C. 大多数人的年龄越大,需要的睡眠越少。

D. 大多数人每晚需要七个半小时的睡眠。

线索:文章的第2段提到“But on averageAmericans sleep only about seven and a half hour per nighta marked drop from the nine hours they averaged in 1910.”表明A是正确答案。B选项和原文的内容相反“...get less than six hours of sleep on a typical work night. For most peoplethats not nearly enough.C选项和文章的整个内容不符合。D选项和原文“Most women and men need between eight and eight and a half hours of sleep a night to function properly”不符合。

【考点提示】细节判断排除混淆选项一定要有耐心和掌握正确的方法。一般第一道题目不会是这种题,如果出现的话,不要从文章的后几段寻找相关信息,就在文章的前两段寻找,定位非常关键。

42.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】为了使我们的身体功能正常运行,我们应该       

A. 调整我们的活动以适应新的发明

B. 能够预测到我们生物钟的节奏

C. 每晚睡至少8小时

D. 相信随着我们的年龄增大,我们需要的睡眠更少

线索:文章的第1段提到“Most women and men need between eight and eight and a half hours of sleep a night to function properly throughout their lives.”表明选项C是正确答案。D选项的内容和原文截然相反“Contrary to popular beliefhumans dont need less sleep as they age.”与流行的观念相反,人并不是变老以后就需要减少睡眠。

43.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】根据作者,许多睡眠紊乱出现的原因是       

A. 不正常的睡眠姿势

B. 慢性疲劳综合征

C. 其他的疾病

D. 睡前的锻炼

线索:文章的第3段提到“But many problems are caused by staying up late and by traveling frequently between time zone or by working nights.”说明选项A是正确答案。B选项不是问题出现的原因,可以认为是它的一个并发症。D选项是改进睡眠的一个方法,不是问题产生的一个原因。

44. 【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】下面的哪一个措施能帮助你睡得更好?

A. 吃夜宵。

B. 在时区之间旅行。

C. 睡得很晚。

D. 洗一个热水澡。

线索:文章的第4段提到“avoiding stimulants and late mealsexercising hours before bedtimerelaxing with a hot bathyield better sleep.”选项D是正确答案。其他几个选项是造成失眠的原因,不是减轻失眠的方法。

45.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】句子理解             

【解析过程】“保护性睡眠”意思是       

A. 如果有必要,人们应该牺牲别的事情去获得足够的睡眠

B. 人们应该放弃“每天在相同的时间睡觉、起床”的念头

C. 人们应该去看医生并且诊断自己的病症

D. 在每晚睡觉之前人们应该立即锻炼

线索:文章的第4段提到“She says people need to carve out sufficient time to sleepeven if it means giving up other things.”表明选项A是正确答案。其他几个选项为干扰项。

Passage Three

媒体可以给时事带来很大影响。作为20世纪60年代伯克利大学的一名研究生,我还记得自己亲身经历了在校园中的一件与人民公园有关的事件。报纸和电视台对其中的一些事件进行了全国性的报道。我发现:把我对所发生事件的了解与从新闻媒体那了解到的信息进行比较是一件有趣的事情。我开始关注那时的新闻媒体所报道的事件。这也为我深入了解这些事实之间的区别提供了机会。

电子媒体每天对人们的日常生活的影响更大。人们从这些报道中获得的信息越来越多。电视和电话通信将人们联系在一起,成为一个地球村,或者如某个作家所称的“电子城”。想想每天电视带给你家的信息,再想想你与他人仅仅使用一个电话就可以联系。这些媒体扩展了你的意识以及你与外界的联系。比如,电视对1989年旧金山大地震报道的主要是大火或救援努力等的“实况”。这使观众对整个灾难有了一个了解。电视对伊拉克战争也进行了及时报道。CNN在战争发生时就进行了现场报道。这些报道被发往世界各地。尽管大多数人远离事件本身,但他们还是对事件的真实情况有所了解。

1992年,在一个令人悲痛的星期三晚上,许多人惊恐地目睹了发生在洛杉矶的暴动,似乎是从直升机上拍摄的。这一事件是由于罗德尼·金殴打案的裁决而引起的。我们生活在这样一个时代,公众获取信息,能够做出自己的判断,大多数看过殴打录像的人不明白为什么陪审团会对涉案的警察宣判无罪。媒体在事件发生时进行了报道,并提供了影响事件的有力反馈。这可能产生不利的结果,就像那个星期三晚上发生在洛杉矶的事件所显现的那样。到星期五晚上时,公众开始在电视上看到罗德尼·金的呼吁,“我们大家能够和平相处吗?”到星期六时,电视似乎提供的是积极的反馈,因为洛杉矶骚乱转变成了呼吁和平的集会。电视报道,成千上万的人拿着旗帜和清洁工具在游行。由于这个原因,更多的人加入到他们在电视中看到的和平行动中。当然,秩序真正恢复正常所需的时间更长,但电子媒体将继续在这一过程中发挥它的作用。

46.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】主旨推断             

【解析过程】这篇文章的最佳标题是       

A. 1989年旧金山地震和1992年洛杉矶骚乱

B. 媒体是如何报道事件的

C. 1992年洛杉矶骚乱

D. 媒体对时事的影响

线索:文章的第1段提到“The media can impact current events.”开门见山地提出文章的主题,是外国人写文章常用的一种手法。A选项在文章大篇幅地提到了,但它们不是文章的主旨,只是用来说明主旨的几个事例。B选项本文没有主要说明。

47.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】下面哪句话是不正确的表达?

A. 在伯克利大学发生的所有事情进行了全国性报道。

B.  1989年旧金山的地震视频报道给予观众整个灾难的印象。

C. 电子媒体能够扩大人们和世界的联系。

D. 那些住在比较偏远地方的人们同样可以通过看电视了解事实。

线索1:文章的第1段提到“Some of these events were given national media coverage in the press and on TV.”选项A显然和原文不符合。

线索2:文章的第2段提到“This gave the viewer the impression of total disaster.”表明B选项正确。

线索3:文章的第2段提到“These media extend your consciousness and your contact.”表明C选项正确。

线索4:文章的第1段提到“Although most people were far away from these eventsthey developed some perception of these realities.”表明D选项正确。

线索2、线索3、线索4在原文中都明确地提到,所以A是正确答案。

48.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】词汇推断             

【解析过程】短语“电子城市”在文章第2段指的是       

A. 伯克利

B. 地球

C. 洛杉矶

D. 旧金山

线索:文章的第2段提到“Television and telephone communications are linking people to a global villageor what one writer calls the electronic city.”前句话说的地球,后句话说的是电子城市,两句话的连接词是并列连词,这样“电子城市”的含义最恰当的表达应该是B选项。

49.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】因果判断             

【解析过程】1992年洛杉矶骚乱爆发的原因是       

A. 来自直升机的视频报道使人们愤怒

B. 视频报道提供了强有力的反馈

C. 陪审团宣布罗德尼·金殴打案的警察无罪

D. 人们能够做出自己的判断

线索:文章的第3段提到“...could not understand how the jury(陪审团)was able to acquit(宣布无罪)the policemen involved...”表明选项C是正确答案。ABD选项在原文的第3段都提到了,但和本题干没有任何的因果关系,所以是错误的选项。

【考点提示】因果关系题在同等学力的考试中经常会出现,同学们容易做错。常见的错误主要有非因非果、因果倒置。大家在做选择的时候,主要是抓住表示因果关系的线索词。选择完后,读一读看是否通顺,逻辑是否严谨。

50.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】主旨推断             

【解析过程】从文章中我们可以推论出       

A. 1992年的洛杉矶骚乱持续了整整一周

B. 罗德尼·金在电视上露面时显得非常生气

C. 媒体对于事件的报道正如发生的那样会造成好的或不好的结果

D. 绝大多数看到罗德尼·金被打的人们会赞成陪审团的裁决

文章整体在说媒体带来的影响。提到了它好的一面,也提到了它不好的一面,所以选项C是正确答案。

线索1:文章的第3段提到周三、周五和周六这几个日子,但不能依此就判断洛杉矶骚乱持续了一整周的时间。A选项不正确。

线索2:文章的第3段提到“Rodney King on television pleading,“Can we all get along?”没有表示出他很是生气的情景。B选项不正确。

线索3:文章的第3段提到“...could not understand how the jury(陪审团)was able to acquit(宣布无罪)the policemen involved...”表明选项和原文的内容截然相反。D选项不正确。

Passage Four

199712月在东京召开了关于全球变暖的会议,很明显:制定与环境有关的国际协议已经变得相当复杂,是因为各个国家独特的经济因素。试图禁止某些活动或削减某些物质排放的做法已经远远不够了。环境与发展相互联合的全球性挑战逐渐把我们带到国家经济生活的核心上来。20世纪80年代末,我们可以通过国际协议大幅度削减有害物质向臭氧层的排放。我们之所以能够削减,是因为许多可以替代有害化学物的东西已经被发现,更重要的是,有害物质可以被代替而且不会给各国的就业和经济带来负作用。

尽管人们知道全球变暖的威胁已有几十年,而且所有的国家和领导人都赞同我们需要处理这个问题,但是,我们也知道,如果其他国家不控制他们的有害物质排放,采取的措施,尤其是一些国家采取的紧急措施将会被抵消。虽然联合国气候变化小组发现:为了稳定大气一氧化碳的含量,全球二氧化碳的排放量必须减少60%,但是,由于一些原因显示这种做法不切实际。这样大幅度地削减将引起世界经济的崩溃。那些重要的、人口众多的中低收入的国家不愿意对自己的能源消耗承担法律义务。另外,世界技术水平还不允许我们做如此大的改进。

当然,我们必须在21世纪早期找到对付全球变暖威胁的解决方案。这样的义务要求人们达成一定程度的共识,承担共同的新责任。成功取决于想象力,取决于“如果我们不这样做会发生什么”。尽管生活在寒带的许多人会欢迎由于全球变暖导致的更温暖的夏天,但是,很少有人会喜欢随之而来的热带疾病,尤其是那些从未有过这些疾病的地区的人们。

51.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】主旨判断             

【解析过程】文章的主要目的是            

A. 分析全球变暖的问题

B. 反对大幅度减少释放物

C. 使人们相信全球变暖确实是一个威胁

D. 批评一些国家拒绝减少危害臭氧层的释放物

线索1:文章的第1段提到“At the Kyoto conference on global warming in December 1997.

线索2:文章的第3段提到“We musthoweverfind a solution to the threat of global warming early in the 21st century.”表明选项A应该是正确答案。

【考点提示】本文是一篇问题解决型的文章,文章的结构是提出问题,分析问题产生的原因,给出解决问题的办法,对办法进行评价。本文提出的问题是“全球变暖”,之后提出了解决办法,但因为经济的原因,解决方法并没有得到彻底的贯彻,对此作者作了详细的分析。所以,本文的主题应该是分析全球变暖问题。

52.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】摆脱全球变暖威胁很困难的原因是            

A. 并不是所有的国家都愿意大量减少释放物

B. 许多人欢迎一个更热夏天的全球变暖影响

C. 许多国家的领导者并不完全明白这个问题的严重性

D. 全世界的科技不能够解决这个问题

线索:文章的第2段提到“Important and populous(人口众多的)low-or medium-    income countries are not yet willing to undertake legal commitments about their energy uses.”表明选项A是正确答案。

B选项在原文的第3段提到“Although many living in cold regions would welcome the global-warming effect of a warmer summe...”原文的寒冷区域在选项中没有出现,所以该选项不正确,犯了扩大范围的错误。

C选项和原文的内容相反“Although the threat of global warming has been known to the world for decades and all countries and leaders agree that we need to deal with the problem.

D选项和原文的内容不符合“In additionthe state of world technology would not yet permit us to make such a big leap.”并没有说技术不能解决该问题。

【考点提示】根据常识判断有的时候比较容易判断出选项的对与错。比如该题的选项A是比较容易选中的,内容上比较概括,语气比较婉转,和文章的中心非常贴近,这些都是正确选项的典型特征。选项B从常识的判断就不太可能是正确的答案。不太可能许多人欢迎全球变暖的事实,这和文章的中心是截然相反。

53.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】文章推断             

【解析过程】文章的作者暗示            

A. 全世界最近意识到了全球变暖的威胁

B. 全球变暖的问题在很大程度上已经被解决

C. 总是很难能够在减少危害臭氧层释放物的世界公约上达成一致

D. 再也不容易达成和环境有关的世界公约

线索:文章的第1段的前几句话明确地表达了作者的观点,现在达成和保护环境有关的世界公约非常不容易。第1段的后半部分表达了在20世纪80年代,这种协议和措施是比较容易贯彻的,所以选项D是正确答案。选项C的“总是”太绝对化了,所以不正确。选项A和原文第2段的第1句话不符合,全世界数十年前就已经认识到了这个问题。选项B显然和原文的内容相反。

【考点提示】推断题是一种常考的题型。标志:learninferimplyinform.

1 看是否可以通过题干返回原文或依据选项返回原文。一般要围绕文中的一两个重点进行推理。推理题无论通过题干能不能定位,我们都要把它固化到文章的一两点上。

2 依据原文的意思进行三错一对的判断。先不要进行推理,若有一个选项跟原文的意思一模一样,则该选项可能是正确答案。推理题不是考查我们的想象力,它实际是考查我们对原文中的某几个点如一个、两个点所涉及的问题是否读透。因此,不推的比推的好;推得近的比推得远的要好。

54.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】因果关系             

【解析过程】根据作者表达,目前不可能在全球范围减少60%的二氧化碳释放物,因为        

A. 一些人不负责任

B. 这些导致经济崩溃

C. 仅是未来要达到的一个目标

D. 一些人缺乏想象力

线索:文章的第2段提到“Such deep cuts would cause a breakdown of the world economy.”表明是因为经济原因,所以选项B是正确答案。

55.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】所有国家应该做些什么以帮助解决全球变暖的问题?

A. 他们应该再召开一届全球气候变化会议。

B. 他们应该提供高科技。

C. 他们应该替代所有的有害物质。

D. 他们应该承担对于他们能源使用的法律承诺。

线索:文章的第2段提到“Important and populous(人口众多的)low-or medium-income countries are not yet willing to undertake legal commitments about their energy uses.”所以,解决全球变暖的问题需要全部国家在法律上做出承诺。

Passage Five

在现代,人们可以经常听到“科学”这个词,几乎每个人都了解它的意义。但是,对于许多人来说,它的定义又很难理解。该词的意思令人困惑,但是,每个人都应该明白它的意思和目的。正是为了使解释尽可能简单,假定科学被定义为“分类知识(事实)”。

即使是真正的科学,要把事实从抽象中区分出来也不总是那么容易。因此,要对区分信仰和真理予以极大的关注。只要在暂时的和已经得到证明的解释之间做出明确的区分,就不会有混淆的危险。比如,假设和理论都试图解释自然现象。基于这些学说,科学家继续进行实验和观察,直到假设和理论被证实或被怀疑,任何解释的精确程度都应该被标明清楚,以免混淆。

科学的主要目的是发现并了解未知的东西。人类不会满足于识别自然界中存在的问题,他必须解决这些问题。为了解决问题,生物学领域和令人关注的相关领域的专家们正在投入大量的时间和精力。

 实际上,两个基本步骤导致人们发现了新知识。一个是以满足好奇心为目的,就是所谓的纯科学。另一个是为了明确的目的而应用知识,比如改善健康状况、提高生活水平或创造出新的消费品。在这种情况下,知识就被用于经济目的。这样的步骤就是所谓的应用科学。

有时,实用主义者忽略了纯科学的目的,只想将纯科学直接用于取得经济回报上。为许多发现负责的化学家几乎无法预测:他们所发现的世界将来有一天会导致这样的实际特性的应用,正如那些直接与生死有关的实际特征。一点知识的发现会为另一种知识的发现提供机会。某些发现看似非常简单,以至于人们惊诧它们许多年以前竟然没有被发现。可是,人们应该不会忘记:显微镜的建造必须早于细胞的发现。许多献身于纯科学的科学家不必为忽视其发现的实用性而内疚,根据经验,他们知道大多数知识最终都会得到运用。

56. 【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】为了定义科学,我们可以简单地称它为       

A. 不相关领域的研究                B. 分类知识

C. 研究不相关的学科                D. 企图解释自然现象

线索:文章的第1段提到“suppose science is defined as classified knowledgefacts.”表明选项B是正确答案。其他几个选项为干扰项。

【考点提示】第1道题目对应文章的第1段,从原文中寻找相关的信息。

57.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】导致显微镜的建造的纯科学       

A. 并不总是如我们想象的那样真实

B. 一定是来自于应用科学和细胞的发现

C. 也许会带来反科学,“不真实”结果

D. 一定会领先于应用科学,导致细胞的发现

线索:文章的第5段提到“howeverone should remember that the construction of the microscope had to precede the discovery of the cell.”表明选项D是正确答案。选项A在原文中没有提到。选项B对原文信息的错误联想。C选项反科学,文章没有提到。

58.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断

【解析过程】一名对增加我们有关氧气的常识感兴趣的科学家可能称他的方法为       

A. 纯科学                                        B. 环境科学

C. 应用科学                              D. 农用科学

线索:文章的第4段和第5段的内容综合判断,选项A是正确答案。选项BD在原文中都没有提到。而C应用科学是研究可以立即转换经济价值的科学,所以不对。

【考点提示】本篇文章属于花开两朵类型的文章,文章从第4段开始主要讲了两个概念:一个是纯科学,研究人们有兴趣的事物;另外一个是应用科学,研究可以转化为经济价值的科学。两个关键概念的区分是考试的出题点。

59.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】细节推断

【解析过程】作者暗示下面哪句说法?

A. 就科学而言,区分事实和虚构并不是很难。

B. 比较功利的人能够理解纯科学的含义和目标。

C. 从事理论研究的科学家不应该由于忽视他们发现的实用性而被谴责。

D. 今天很少有人能真正理解科学的含义。

线索:文章的第5段提到“The host of scientists dedicating their lives to pure science are not apologetic(抱歉)about ignoring the practical side of their discoveries;”表明选项C是正确答案。选项A和原文第2段的首句相反。选项B和原文的第5段首句“Sometimes practical-minded people miss the point of pure science”相反。选项D和原文第1段的内容“The word science is heard so often in modem times that almost everybody has some notion of its meaning.”相反。

【考点提示】根据题目的号码可以推断出该题目考查的有可能是文章的后半部分,这样在答题时从文章的后半部分内容入手要简单一些。其他几个选项是从别的段落中摘抄出来的混淆选项。

60.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】主旨判断             

【解析过程】本文的最佳标题是            

A. 假设和理论

B. 区分事实和虚构

C. 科学和科学家的特性

D. 生物学和科学年代

综观全文,选择C选项是最合适的,文章主要讲的是科学的定义、科学的分类以及科学家,所以C是正确答案。B选项仅在文章的第2段提到了,不可能是文章的主题。

Passage Six

可能除了平等权,如今在美国最有争议的问题就是死刑。许多人认为,死刑是震慑凶杀的一种最有效的办法,而其他人则坚持认为,没有令人信服的证据表明死刑降低了凶杀案的数量。

基本上,由反对死刑的人提出的主要的论据是:死刑是一种残酷的、不人道的惩罚手段;死刑是野蛮社会的标志;最后,不管怎样,死刑作为震慑犯罪的力量让人感到质疑。

我们认为,死刑是一种灾祸。从历史记录来看,每个社会都存在一些极端的个体,这些人能够犯下恐怖暴力的罪行,比如谋杀。但是,一些人比其他人更极端。

比如,因一时无法控制的愤怒而杀掉另一个人是一回事,但是,深思熟虑并像屠夫一样谋杀一个或更多人则是另一回事。因此,谋杀像所有其他犯罪一样,也是一个有关尺度的问题。虽然我们可以争论有关“第一种案例中的罪犯只应该隔离于社会”这样的宣判,但是后一种杀人犯的结局不应该是这样。

死刑作为震慑罪犯的力量,它的价值可以公开辩论。但是,大多数公民坚信死刑保护了他们。表明死刑阻止了凶杀案的证据,增强了他们的信念。比如,从1954~1963年,当加利福尼亚始终停止执行死刑时,其凶杀犯罪保持在十万分之三到十万分之四的比率。自1964年起,死刑只被停止执行了一次,凶杀犯罪率就上升到了十万分之十点四。当该州停止执行死刑时凶杀犯罪率就开始迅速上升,绝不是巧合。这是一个令人信服的证据:死刑确实阻止了许多杀人犯。如果否决恢复死刑的法案,无辜的人们将被谋杀。如果执行死刑,一些人的生命就可能被拯救。确切地说,这是一个生还是死的问题。成千上万无辜者的生命必须得到保护。

61.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】主旨判断             

【解析过程】本文的主要目的是        

A. 为大多数人代言                          B. 启动一个反对议案

C. 批评政府                              D. 争论死刑具有价值

线索1:文章的第5段提到“But the overwhelming majority of citizens believe that the death penalty protects them.

线索2:文章的第3段提到“In our opinionthe death penalty is a necessary evil.

线索1和线索2比较明确地表明了作者的态度,支持死刑。

【考点提示】主旨题是文章的核心词和作者态度的结合。很明显本文作者讨论的核心词是死刑的问题,而作者的态度是有保留地支持死刑。所以,选项D是正确答案。

62.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】本文企图建立        之间的关系。

A. 谋杀犯罪比率和死刑的执行

B. 执行死刑的影响和无期徒刑的影响

C. 平等权利的重要性和死刑的重要性

D. 死刑和谋杀犯

线索:文章的第5段提到“Their belief is reinforced by evidence which shows that the death penalty deters murder. For examplefrom 1954 to 1963when the death penalty...”这表明死刑和谋杀犯之间是有一定的比例的关系。选项C中提到的平等权利,在文章的首段提到了,但这不是作者所要建立的一个和死刑有关的关系。

【考点提示】本题也可以理解为是一道文章主旨题,整个文章都是在讲死刑和谋杀犯的关系,死刑使用的问题,所以不管是主旨题还是细节题,同学们都应该注意,选项的内容一定要和文章的中心保持一致。

63.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】作者态度             

【解析过程】作者对于那些支持死刑适用于各种谋杀犯的人的态度最有可能是       

A. 否定         B. 友好                C. 支持                D. 敌对

线索:文章的第4段提到的内容表明作者是支持死刑的,但态度上是要有保留,对不同等级的谋杀犯要适用不同的惩罚。

【考点提示】作者的态度一般在文章中是不会明确给出的,它往往隐含在一些线索词里。这就要求同学们在读文章的时候,一定要保持警觉的心态,注意作者的态度是什么。同时,要注意选项之间的关系,比如该题的BC选项是有一定同义的关系,所以正确的可能性不大。

64.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】本文的作者主要关注       

A. 客观地分析一个问题                   B. 解决一个争论

C. 阐明一个观点                       D. 描述一个事件

综观全文,作者一直是要表达他的一个观点,死刑不应该被废除,所以选项C最合适。A选项和原文不符合,而且和63题的答案也不符合,所以不对。直到最后作者也没有提出一个解决办法,只是建议支持死刑不要被废除,所以B选项不对。D选项和原文不相关。

【考点提示】题目之间是有一定的逻辑关系的,比如该题目和上面的63题之间就有一定的联系,同学们在做题的时候,可要注意到这一点。

65.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节推断             

【解析过程】可以推论出作者认为       

A. 今天的美国死刑是最令人争论的问题

B. 第二类谋杀犯(第4段)应该被判处死刑

C. 对于重新建立死刑提案的反对票没有什么重要意义

D. 作为一个震慑,死刑的价值将不会被争论

线索:文章的第4段提到“the criminal in the first instance should be merely isolated from societysuch should not be the fate of the latter type murderer.”这表明正确选项应该是B。选项A和文章的第1句话不符合。选项C和原文第5段的内容不符合,作者认为该提案是非常的重要。D选项和整个文章不符合。

【考点提示】推断的内容不是新的内容,而是在原有内容的基础之上,从另外一个侧面重新叙述一遍。也就是说不推比推好,推得越少越好。

Part Cloze

你最早的童年记忆是什么?你能记起学走路时的情形吗?或是学说话时的情形?你第一次   66   雷声或看电视节目?成年人很少   67   比上学前那一年早得多的事情,正如三岁或四岁的儿童   68   记得任何具体的、涉及个人的经历。心理学家已经为这样的“儿童失忆症”   69   了各种各样的解释。一种解释认为:海马状突起(人脑内负责形成记忆的区域)   70   大约两岁时才成熟。但是,最流行的理论   71   :由于成年人不像儿童那样思考,所以他们不能   72   童年的记忆。成年人用言语思考,他们有关生活的记忆就像故事或   73    ——正如小说或电影中那样,一件事紧跟   74   。但是,当他们通过大脑中的   75    搜寻早期的童年记忆以便补充这种用言语表达的生活经历时,他们发现,任何记录都适应不了这种   76   。这就像人们试图在一本英语字典中查找一个汉字那样。

如今,纽约州立大学的心理学家安妮特·西蒙斯为“儿童失忆症”提出了一种新的

   77   。她认为:的确   78   任何可供回忆的早期儿童记忆。根据西蒙斯博士的观点,儿童应该学会利用   79   有关他们个人经历的口头描述,以便把他们有关自己的短暂的、容易   80   的印象转变成长期的记忆。   81   ,儿童必须谈论自己的经历,并且要倾听别人谈论   82    ——妈妈谈论   83   在海滩寻找贝壳的下午,或是爸爸询问他们在海洋公园度过的一天。西蒙斯博士说,没有这种   84   强化,儿童不可能形成他们有关个人经历的    85    记忆。

66.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】listen“听,听从”,常与to连用;feel“感觉,触摸”;touch“接触,触及”;hear“听到,听说”。由or连接,可以判断应与watch相似,为感官动词,而thunder是只可能被看到或听到的,又因为listen为不及物动词,所以选D

67.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】involve“设计,陷入”;interpret“解释,说明”;recall“回想,回忆起”;resolve“决定,解决”。此处应选与前面memory近义复现的选项,所以选C

68.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】largely“主要地,大量地”;rarely“很少地,罕有地”;merely“仅仅,只”;really“真实地”。根据上下文可知,应选与seldom相近的副词,所以选rarely

69.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】cancel“取消”;figure“计算出,合计到”;propose“计划,建议”;witness“目击,见证”。分析句子可知应与explanation所搭配,四个选项只有propose合适。

70.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】惯用搭配

【考点剖析】notuntil在一起搭配表示“直到……才”,与上下文意思相符。

71.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】magnifies“放大,扩大”;contain“包含,包括”;intervenes“插入,干涉”;argue“争论,辩论”。根据前后文理解所填词应与argue反义复现,所以选D

72.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】四个选项中能和memories搭配的只有reflectattain意为“得到,达到”;access意为“接近”;refer意为“提交,谈判”。

73.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】narrative“叙述”;forecast“预报”;regulation“规章,规则”;descriptions“描述”。所填词应与stories同义复现,只有narratives符合。

74.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】惯用搭配

【考点剖析】the rest of“余下的”;another“另一个”;the other“两个中的另一个”;otherssome对比使用时,是“有些”的意思而不作“其他”讲。one ... another“一个……,另一个”。

75.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】修饰限定

【考点剖析】output“产量,成品”;dream意为“梦”;flash“闪光,闪现”;file“文件,文档”。mental所修饰的名词应选files

76.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】frame“结构,构架”;pattern“模式,方式”;landscape意为“山水,风景”;footstep意为“脚步”根据前后文,此处应选一个“模式,方式”之类的词,所以选pattern

77.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】emphasis“强调,重点”;arrangement“排列,安排”;explanation“解释,说明”;factor“因素,要素”。explanation意为“说明,解释”;可以作为offer的宾语,其他选项都不合适。

78.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】结构衔接

【考点剖析】考查there be结构中的be动词的选择,主语是复数,且为一般现在时,所以选arent

79.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】此处应与下文的“their own”相对应,所以选“someone elses”。

80.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】forgottenforget的过去分词”;remember“回忆起,铭记,纪念”;forge-

                         ting“遗忘”;remembering根据上下文可以判断应与memories反义,所以选forgotten

81.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】惯用搭配

【考点剖析】in some sense“在某种意义上,在某种程度上”;in all cases“在一切情况下”;in other words“换言之”;by all means“千方百计,不惜一切”。in other words为固定搭配,意为“换句话说,换言之”,其他选项都不合适,所以选C

82.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】结构衔接

【考点剖析】并列连词and表明此处需要填入的词与their experience并列,为同义复现关系,四个选项中能做名词性物主代词的只有theirs

83.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】use“利用,使用”;choose“选择,选定”;take“拿走”;spend“花费”。四个选项中只有spend能够后接动名词形式,所以选D

84.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】habitual“习惯上的”;verbal“语言的”;pretty“很多的”;mutual“相互的”。前面的指示代词this指代前文提到的孩子听父母讲述的情况,因此应选verbal

85.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】permanent“长期的,永久的”;conscious“有意识的”;subordinate“附属的”;spiritual“精神的”。此处应与long-term同义复现四个选项只有permanent有这个意思。

Paper Two试卷二(60 minutes

Part Error Detection and Correction

1.    【正确答案】C,改为“is”。

【句子翻译】社会心理学的焦点是人们的相互影响,而不是他们生活中的事件。

【考点类型】主谓一致

【考点剖析】be动词修饰it is,主语是单数,所以变为is

【考点扩展】几种特殊结构数的一致:

1 more than one + 单数名词 + 单数动词;而more + 复形名词 + than one + 复数动词。比如:More members than one have proposed against the proposal. 反对这项提议的会员不止一个。

2 a + 单数名词 + or two + 单数动词。比如:A servant or two was to accompany them. 一个或两个仆人会去陪他们。而one or two + 复形名词 + 复数动词。比如:one or two reasons were suggested.提出一两条理由。

3 either / neither / not only + 名词 + or / nor / but also + 名词的结构要求动词一般应与or / nor / but also后的名词一致。比如:Neither he nor they are mistaken.他和他们都错了。

4 名词 + with / as well as + 名词结构要求动词一般与第一个名词一致。比如:I as well as they am ready to help you. 我和他们都准备帮你。

5 a pair / group of + 复形名词 + 单数动词;而a lot / a number of / plenty / most of + 名词结构要求动词和名词的数形一致。比如:This group of chemicals behaves in the same way. 这一组化合物起着同样的作用。

2.    【正确答案】C,改为“little”。

【句子翻译】难以置信的是当林肯出生的时候,通信几乎不比恺撒时代快。

【考点类型】形近词辨析

【考点剖析】very hard to决定了C处应该为否定含义,所以将a去掉。

【考点扩展】little / few“(表示数量等的否定用法,无冠词)只有少许(一点点),没有多少”;a little / few“少量,少许”。

3.    【正确答案】C,改为“differently”。

【句子翻译】虽然我们几乎同时到场,但是布朗先生与我的看法截然不同。

【考点类型】副词用法

【考点剖析】C处应该是修饰动词,但是different为形容词,所以应该为differently

【考点扩展】副词是用来修饰动词、形容词、其他副词以及全局的词,表示时间、地点、程度、方式等概念。

4.    【正确答案】B,改为“falling asleep”。

【句子翻译】一些研究表明,一些人难以入睡,一些人却难以醒来。

【考点类型】惯用搭配

【考点剖析】have troubleindoing sth.,这是固定搭配,在这个短语中可以接动名词而不能接不定式。

5.    【正确答案】A,改为“have I”。

【句子翻译】我从未见过任何人修理汽车的技术比约翰好。

【考点类型】倒装结构

【考点剖析】居中never放在before之前,所以应该采取倒装结构。

【考点扩展】倒装

倒装是一种语法手段,用以表示一定句子结构的需要和强调某一句子成分。英语最基本的结构是主谓结构,倒装就是将这种基本结构的词序加以颠倒。需要我们注意的倒装结构包括:

1 There be的结构。比如:There seems to be some misunderstanding about the matter. 在这个问题上似乎有些误会。

2 地点状语位于句首,主语为名词而谓语为不及物动词的陈述句。比如:From the window came sound of music. 从窗户传来了音乐声。

3 某些条件从句(省略了if)。比如:Were you in my positionyou would do the same.你如果处在我的地位,也会这样做的。

4 某些让步状语从句(as作为引导词)。比如:Toil as he wouldhe might failand go down and be destroyed!他尽管苦干,还是可能失败、沉沦而被毁灭。

5 soneithernor等副词置于句首时候,全句常需倒装。比如:I dont knownor do I care. 我不知道,我也不想知道。

6 neverseldomlittlenorhardlyscarcelyno soonernot only等表否定的副词或连词位于句首时,全句需要倒装。比如:Scarcely had he arrived when they asked him to leave again. 他刚一到,他们又要他离去。

7 此外,为了强调某一句子成分而进行的倒装,可以把句子的谓语、表语、状语、过去分词、现在分词、不定式等置于句首。比如:Facing the lake was a little inn with its pillared veranda. 湖对面是一个有柱廊的小旅店。

6.    【正确答案】C,改为“would have”。

【句子翻译】假如约翰辞职而亨利顶替他,我们将有一个更加精力充沛的领导。

【考点类型】虚拟语气

【考点剖析】前半句为非真实的条件句,所以主句应该采用虚拟语气。

【考点扩展】非真实条件句

非真实条件句的假设是不可能发生或实现的,句中的条件句与结果主句都要用虚拟语气。现将用于非真实条件句中的虚拟时态列表如下:

比如:If we left nowwe should arrive in time. 如果现在就走的话,我们可以及时到达。If hadnt been toldI wouldnt have known what these were for. 假如别人不告诉我,我就不会知道这些东西是干什么的。If you lived there for a whileyou would change your mind about that place. 假如你在那里待一段时间,你就会改变对那个地方的看法。

7.    【正确答案】B,改为“more”。

【句子翻译】从历史来看,没有艺术家能比雕刻家更全面地记录人类文化发展进程。

【考点类型】比较级

【考点剖析】句中应该与clearer平级,所以应该改为more

【考点扩展】比较级的一些特殊用法

1 比较级前可以用muchfara littlea bitslightlya lot等表示不定度量。比如:The buildings look far uglier in London than here. 伦敦的建筑比这里难看多了。

2 比较级与evenstillyet等连用表示“更加”。比如:We are working still harder now. 现在我们工作更加努力。

3 比较级前可用“数词 + 名词”表示确定的度量。比如:He is two inches taller than his father. 他比他的爸爸高两英寸。

4 比较级 + and + 比较级或more and more + 原级结构表示“越来越……”。比如:Things are getting better and better every day. 情况一天天好起来。

5 副词 + the + 比较级 + 副词 + the + 比较级结构表示“越……,就越……”。比如:The more hastethe less speed. 欲速则不达。

6 比较级用于否定结构表示“再……不过”。比如:Nothing better!再好不过!

8.    【正确答案】D,改为“less”。

【句子翻译】虽然社会赋予了警察很大的权力来执行法律,但他们比起一些权力更小的群体拿的收入却更少。

【考点类型】名词的数

【考点剖析】authority为不可数名词,因此不能用fewer修饰。

【考点扩展】不可数名词包括各种物质的统称(比如bread)、抽象名词(比如courage)等。这些词的前面往往加someanynoa little等,或加a bit / piece / slice + of。比如any evidencea bit of news等。

9.    【正确答案】B,改为“all of whom”。

【句子翻译】1300名接受过治疗有药瘾者培训的专业医疗人员参加了这个社会资助年会。

【考点类型】关系代词

【考点剖析】指代人时代词必须用who或者whom,此处又是作宾语,所以用whom

【考点扩展】在定语从句中用作关系代词的whowhomwhose指人,who是主格,在从句中作主语,whom是宾语,在从句中作宾语,whose是所有格,在从句中作定语。比如:A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan.失去父母的孩子叫孤儿。

10.   【正确答案】D,改为“are done”。

【句子翻译】从澳大利亚搬到英国这个遥远的地方已经超过三年了,我们还在学习这边的做事方式。

【考点类型】时态语态

【考点剖析】主语与谓语的关系是被动的,所以要用被动语态。此外没有强调动作正在进行,所以用一般现在时。

【考点扩展】一般现在时:一般现在时表示经常发生的动作或经常存在的状态,常和alwaysoftenusuallyevery daysometimes等连用。它可以表示日常的行为、习惯和能力、客观存在等。比如:If you speak slowlyI unde-rstand. 你说慢点,我听得懂(表日常行为)。He never wears a hat in winter. 他冬天从不戴帽子(表习惯)。The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转(表客观规律)。

Part Translation

【参考译文】It does real harm to you if you breathe it in when others smoke. American Lung Association estimates that about 3000 people who die of lung cancer each year are second-hand smokers. A survey indicates that the non-smoking women who live in a smoking family enviro-nment for 40 years or longer will double the risk of lung canceror to develop lung cancer.

【结构分析】 本段共有三句话。

1. 第一句话中,我们发现从逻辑上讲,前面两个小短句是该句的主语成分,翻译成英文时,我们就可以采用“Its + adj. + 从句”的句式结构。

2. 第二句中,我们可以看到有个“有”字,在翻译成英语时,不一定非要处理成“there be”句型。这里我们把“3000名人”当成主语,而“死于肺癌的”来充当 3000名人”的定语从句。

3. 在最后一句,我们可以看出有个“如果”一词,这里不一定就要处理成if引导的条件关系从句,我们在这里可以处理成定语从句。

【词义推敲】吸入:breath...in

对……有害:do harm to sb. / be harmful to sb.

美国“肺协”:American Lung Association

死于疾病、气死或冻死等:die of...;死于外因、外伤、过度劳累等:die from...

被动吸烟者:second-hand smokers / passive smokers

肺癌:lung cancer

不吸烟的妇女:non-smoking women

加倍……危险:double the risk of sth. / to do sth. double这里作动词用,指“使加倍”;

患肺癌:develop lung cancer,作“患……病”讲时,应该是患的大病、重病。而have则指“轻微的病或小病,如感冒、牙疼等”。

Part Guided Writing

参考范文:

The Qualities of the Cross-Century Talents

In order to survive and succeed in the 21st centurythe cross-century talents should have good educational backgroundstrong communication skills and open-mindetc.

Because our society is characterized with theknowledge economy”,education background is becoming vital to all of us. We surely need to learn the modern technology in order to succeed in our life. As the world economy becomes more and more globalizedwe need to contact with different people in different parts of the world. A good command of foreign language and an understanding of cultural difference become increasingly important. As good command of foreign language and an understanding of cultural difference become increasingly important. As the world becomessmaller”,we need to be more open-minded to new ideas.

To become a cross-century talentwe need to bear in mind that learning is no longer a once-and-for-all experiencebut an on-going processor in other wordsthe idea of life-long renewal will prevail.

 

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