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2004年同等学力英语真题及答案
作者:佚名   来源:本站原创  日期:2009-12-4 9:46:05  点击数:

2004年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试

Paper One试卷一(90 minutes

Part Listening Comprehension20 minutes15 points)(略)

Part Vocabulary10 minutes10 points

Section A

DirectionsIn this section there are ten sentenceseach with one word or phrase underlined. Choose the one from the four choices marked ABC and D that best keeps the meaning of the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.

16.   Hague was elected as the Conservative Party leader partly because of his ambiguous views on Britain’s position in relation to its partners in the European Union.

A. ambitious             B. obscure                C. appalling                   D. indifferent

17.   Her story shows how gentle stubbornness and an indifference to honors and fame can lead to great achievements.

A. persuasion             B. determination           C. devotion                   D. reservation

18.   We have a respon3sibility to ensure our nation’s continued prosperity and the most sensible way to do this is by investment in basic scientific research.

A. effective               B. efficient               C. significant                 D. reasonable

19. All information reported to or likewise obtained by the commission is considered confidential.

A. in a similar way                                            B. in another way

C. in a direct way                                             D. in an unauthorized way

20.   I would recommend this inn highly on account of its wonderful location.

A. as a result of                                                 B. because of                  

C. with regard to                                              D. with a view to

21.   Television advertisements do more than merely reflect dominant ideologies.

A. exactly                B. faithfully              C. repeatedly                  D. simply

22.   The legislative provision has a great impact on the operations of the department.

A. law                        B. passage                C. revision                   D.  clause

23.   In spite of a problem with the faulty equipmentsome very useful work was accomplished.

A. imperfect                    B. temporary             C. emergency          D. reinstalled

24.   Talks on climate change resumed in the German city of Bonn on July 16 to combat global warming.

A. focus on              B. settle down            C. fight against           D. sum up

25.   Bob believes that the invasion of the marketplace into the university is undermining fundamental academic valuesand that we must act now to halt this decline.

A. lace                  B. plug                         C. cease                      D. digest

Section B

DirectionsIn this sectionthere are ten incomplete sentences. For each sentence there are four choices marked ABC and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.

26.   The local people could hardly think of any good way to______poverty they had endured.

A. shake off              B. ward off              C. put off                    D. take off

27.   The three branches of governmentthe legislativethe executiveand the______restrain and stabilize one another through their separated functions.

A. lawful                       B. just                         C. judicial                   D. legal

28.   From observers estimates of the brightness of the fireballhe______that the body in the space was between 40 feet and 260 feet in diameter.

A. deduced               B. reduced               C. induced           D. produced

29.   They provide a means of keeping______of the thousands of journal papers that are published monthly or quarterly.

A. track                       B. contact                C. relation                    D. steps

30. You can use the Course Calendar to help______your students of important dates in the coursesuch as test dates.

A. warn                 B. remind                      C. convince                   D. deprive

31.   Among picture books for 48-year-oldsseveral outstanding works appeared that combined original stories with______illustrations.

A. imaginable            B. imaginative            C. imaging                   D. imageless

32.   A survey of more than 1000 philosophersteachers and students by the authoritative Philosophers Magazine placed Charles Darwins The Origin of______as the third most important work.

A. Sperms                B. Species                C. Spectrums                  D. Specimens 

33.   As skies fill with millions of migrating birdsEuropean scientists say the seasonal miracle appears to depend on a seeming______The fatter the birdthe more efficiently it flies.

A. interruption                  B. description            C. qualification                 D. contradiction

34.   The party leader justified his subsequent reelection______that he had brought political stability and economic development to his country.

A. in the way                   B. by no means            C. on the grounds     D. to the extent

35.   A leading British scholar has proposed translating Shakespeare into contemporary English ______ young audiences who are confused by jokes which are 400 years out of date.

A. in memory of                                                  B. at the cost of

C. on behalf of                                                   D. for the benefit of

Part Reading Comprehension45 minutes25 points

DirectionsThere are five passages in this part. Each passage is followed by five questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked ABC and D. Choose the best answer and mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.

Passage One

Children live in a world in which science has tremendous importance. During their lifetimes it will affect them more and more. In timemany of them will work at jobs that depend heavily on science. As votersthey will have a voice in making many decisions that involve sciencefor exampleconcerning energy sourcespollution controlhighway safetywilderness conservationand population growth. As taxpayers they will pay for scientific research and exploration. Andas consumersthey will be bombarded(受到轰击)by advertisingmuch of which is said to be based on science.

Thereforeit is important that childrenthe citizens of the futurebecome functionally acquainted with sciencewith the process and spirit of scienceas well as with its facts and principles. Fortunatelyscience has a natural appeal for youngsters. They can relate it to so many things that they encounterflashlightstoolsechoesand rainbows.

Besidesscience is an excellent medium for teaching far more than content. It can help pupils learn to think logicallyto organize and analyse ideas. It can provide practice in communication skills and mathematics. In factthere is no area of the curriculum to which science cannot contributewhether it is geographyhistorylanguage artsmusic or art

Above allgood science teaching leads to what might be called ascientific attitude.Those who possess it seek answers through observingexperimentingand reasoningrather than blindly accepting the pronouncements of others. They weigh evidence carefully and reach conclusions with caution. While respecting the opinions of othersthey expect honestyaccuracyand objectivity are on guard against hasty judgments and sweeping generalizations. All children should be developing this approach to solving problemsbut it cannot be expected to appear automatically with the mere acquisition of information. Continual practicethrough guided participationis needed.

36.   One of the reasons why science is important for children is that many of them will         .

A. work in scientific research institutions

B. work at jobs closely related to science

C. make the final decision in matters concerning science

D. be fund-raisers for scientific research and exploration

37.   There is no doubt that children like learning science because         .

A. science is linked with many of the things they meet

B. science is a very easy subject for them to learn

C. they encounter the facts and principles of science daily

D. they are familiar with the process and spirit of science

38.   Pupils can learn logical thinking while         .

A. practicing communication skills                            B. studying geography

C. taking art courses                                        D. learning science

39.   People with a scientific attitude         .

A. are ready to accept the pronouncements of others

B. tend to reach conclusions with certainty

C. are aware that others are likely to make hasty judgments

D. seek truth through observation experimentation and reasoning

40.   In the passage the writer seems to         .

A. prove that science is a successful course in school

B. point out that science as a course is now poorly taught in school

C. suggest that science should be included in the school curriculum

D. predict that children who learn science will be good scientists

Passage Two

My surprise over the past few winters has been the personality transformation my parents go through around mid-December as they change from Dad and Mom into Grandpa and Grandma. Yesthey become grandparents and are completely different from the people I know the other eleven and a half months of the year.

The first sign of my parents change is the delight they take in visiting toy and childrens clothing stores. These two peoplewho usually dislike anything having to do with shopping mallsbecome crazy consumers. While they tell me to budget my money and shop wiselythey are buying up every doll and dump truck in sight. And this is only the beginning of the holidays

When my brothers children arriveGrandpa and Grandma come into full form. First they throw out all ideas about a balanced diet for the grandkids. While we were raised in a  house where everyone had to take two bites of cornbeets(甜菜),or liverfoods that appeared quite often on our table despite constant complaining),the grandchildren never have to eat anything that does not appeal to them. Grandma carries chocolate in her pockets to bribe(贿赂)the littlest ones into following her around the housewhile Grandpa offerssurprisesof candy and cake to them all day long. Boxes of chocolate-pie disappear while the whole-wheat bread get hard and stale. The kids love all the sweetsand when the sugar raises their energy levelsGrandma and Grandpa can always decide to leave and do a bit more shopping or go to bed while my brother and sister-in-law try to deal with their highly active kids.

Once the grandchildren have arrivedGrandma and Grandpa also seem to forget all of the responsibility lectures I so often hear in my daily life. If Mickey screams at his sister during dinnerhe isdeveloping his own personality”;if Nancy breaks Grandmas mirrorshe isjust a curious child.Butif I track mud into the house while helping to unload groceriesI becomecareless”;if I scold one of the grandkids for tearing pages out of my textbookI am impatient. If Paula talks back to her motherGrandma and Grandpa smile at her spirit. If I say one word about all of this excessive loveMom and Dad reappear to have a talk with me about petty jealousies.

41.   As regards his parents shopping for the grandchildrenthe author         .

A. feels jealous                                          B. feels amazed     

C. thinks it unnecessary                             D. thinks it annoying

42.   What happens after the kids have had all the sweets

A. They get highly energetic.                             B. They quiet down.

C. They want more sweets.                                D. They go to bed.

43.   Which of the following is NOT true of the visiting children

A. They behave very well.                                 B. They like chocolate very much.

C. They receive toys from their grandparents.      D. They are having a lot of fun.

44.   It can be inferred from the passage that when the author was a childhe         .

A. liked the foods he had                                  B. got a lot of pocket money

C. was spoiled by his parents                             D. was scolded if he misbehaved

45.   “Personality transformation”in the author’s parents means that they         .

A. have turned into loving parents

B. have become strict parents

C. no longer care for the author

D. used to believe in discipline for children

Passage Three

Diego Chiapellolegally blind since birthisnt one of Italys famousmamas boyswho live with their parents into adulthood. The 27-year-old lives alone in Milanworks as a network administratorloves diving and dreams of sailing across the Atlantic with a sight-impaired(有视力障碍的)crew.

Obviouslyhes not your average disabled personbut especially so in Italy. The country has more barriers to integration than almost anywhere else on the Continentamong European countriesItaly ranks third from the bottom in accessibility for the disabledahead of only Greece and PortugalPeople who use wheelchairsespeciallyfind it difficult to navigate the countrys cobblestone(鹅卵石)streetsride buses or visit restaurantsshops and museums. Less than a quarter of Italys disabled hold jobscompared with 47 percent for Europe.

But the biggest obstacle for the countrys physically challenged mayin factbe the fabled Italian family. Because of the social defect that still attaches to disabilities,“they tend to keep disabled people at homeand out of public viewexplains Giovanni Marrihead of an employment training center in Milan that caters to the handicapped. Thus while 15 percent of the countrys families include a disabled personaccording to surveysonly 2 percent of Italians report going to school with a disabled person and only 4 percent work with one.  

Italians are beginning to recognize the problem. Over the past decadethe government has passed laws targeting everything from workplace discrimination to accessibility requirements. A recent study by the European Union found that 85 percent of Italians admit that public transportation and infrastructure(基础设施)are inadequate for the handicappedand 97 percent say action is needed. But the biggest barrier is psychological.Italian companies are afraid of hiring disabled people,”says Chiapello. The only way to alter thathe saysis for Italys disabled to do what he didget out of the house and demand change.

46.   Which of the following words best describesmamas boys”?

A. Ordinary.                B. Optimistic.               C. Dependent.               D. Desirable.

47.   In this passageChiapello is cited as an example of         .

A. unusual disabled Italians                              B. courageous blind sailors

C. typical handicapped people                            D. vulnerable disabled Europeans

48.   In Italywhere are the disabled people most likely to be

A. On the street.           B. At home.                  C. In school.                 D. At work.

49.   Italy’s general public will most probably agree that         .

A. physical inadequacies are the biggest obstacle for the disabled

B. things should be done to remove the barriers against the disabled

C. workplace prejudices toward the disabled are hardly recognizable

D. disabled people should reduce the need of going to public places

50.   What is the passage mainly about

A. Italy has not done enough in aiding the disabled.

B. Italy’s disabled people should get out of their houses.

C. Italian people have been blind to troubles of the disabled.

D. Italian ways of aiding the disabled should be encouraged.

Passage Four

The average number of authors on scientific papers is sky-rocketing. Thats partly because labs are biggerproblems are more complicatedand more different subspecialties are needed. But its also because U S government agencies have started to promoteteam science. As physics developed in the post-World War erafederal funds built expensive national facilitiesand these served as surfaces on which collaborations could crystallize naturally.

Yet multiple authorshiphowever good it maybe in other wayspresents problems for journals and for the institutions in which these authors work. For the journalslong lists of authors are hard to deal with in themselves. But those long lists give rise to more serious questions when something goes wrong with the paper. If there is research misconducthow should the liability be allocated among the authorsIf there is an honest mistake in one part of the work but not in othershow should an evaluator aim his or her review

Various practical or impractical suggestions have emerged during the long-standing debate on this issue. One is that each author should provideand the journal should then publishan account of that authors particular contribution to the work. But a different view of the problemand perhaps of the solutioncomes as we get to university committee on appointments and promotionswhich is where the authorship rubber really meets the road. Half a lifetime of involvement with this process has taught me how much authorship matters. I have watched committees attempting to decode sequences of namesagonize over whether a much-cited paper was really the candidates work or a coauthorsand send back recommendations asking for more specificity about the division of responsibility.

Problems of this kind change the argumentsupporting the case for asking authors to define their own roles. After allif quality judgments about individuals are to be made on the basis of their personal contributionsthen the judges better know what they did. But if questions arise about the validity of the work as a wholewhether as challenges to its conduct or as evaluations of its influence in the fielda team is a teamand the members should share the credit or the blame.

51.   According to the passagethere is a tendency that scientific papers         .      

A. are getting more complicated

B. are dealing with bigger problems

C. are more of a product of team work

D. are focusing more on natural than on social sciences

52.   One of the problems with multiple authorship is that it is hard         .

A. to allocate the responsibility if the paper goes wrong

B. to decide on how much contribution each reviewer has made

C. to assign the roles that the different authors are to play

D. to correspond with the authors when the readers feel the need to 

53.   According to the passageauthorship is important when         .

A. practical or impractical suggestions of the authors are considered

B. appointments and promotions of the authors are involved

C. evaluators need to review the publication of the authors

D. the publication of the authors has become much-cited

54.   According to the passagewhether multiple authors of a paper should be taken collectively or individually depends on         .

A. whether judgments are made about the paper or its authors

B. whether it is the credit or the blame that the authors need to share

C. how many authors are involved in the paper

D. where the paper has been published

55.   The best title for the passage can be         .

A. Writing Scientific PapersPublish or Perish

B. Collaboration and Responsibility in Writing Scientific Papers

C. Advantages and Disadvantages of Team Science

D. Multiple AuthorsMultiple Problems

Passage Five

What produces a waterproof super glueacts like a vacuum cleanerand even teaches scientists about gene repairThe humble little shellfish known as the mussel(贻贝)!

Mussels are found worldwide. Some live in the sea. Others inhabit freshwater streams and lakes. When you try to move a mussel from a rockyou will discover what an incredibly firm grip it hasa necessity if the mussel is to resist the sharp grab of a hungry seabird or the pounding waves of the sea. How does it manage to cling so tightWhen it choose a place to set up homeit pokes its tongue-shaped foot out of its shell and presses it against a solid surface. Special glands give off a fluid mixture of proteins into a channel that runs the length of the foot. The liquid quickly hardens into a fineelastic thread about an inch long. Then a tiny pad-like structure at the end of this thread gives off some natural glue-like substancethe mussel lifts its footand anchor line number one is complete. These strategically placed threads form a bundlewhich ties the mussel to its new home in much the same way that ropes hold down a tent. The whole procedure takes only three or four minutes.

Imagine having a very strong glue that is non-toxic and so flexible that it can penetrate the tiniest holes and cornerssticking to any surfaceeven under water. Shipbuilders would welcome it for repairing vessels without the expense of dry-docking them. Auto-body workers would like a really waterproof paint that keeps the rust out. Surgeons would value a safe glue to join broken bones and to close wounds... The list of possible uses appears endless.

Howeverscientists are not thinking of using the mussels themselves to produce this super glue. It would take some 10000 shellfish to make just one gram of glue. So collection enough mussels to supply the worlds demand for super glue would wipe out the mussel populationmany species of which are already endangered. InsteadAmerican researchers have isolated and cloned the genes for five mussel glue proteinsand they are about to mass-produce them in the laboratory. Howeverthe mussel is still one jump ahead. Only the mussel instinctively knows the exact blend of proteins needed for each kind of surface. Molecular biologist Frank Roberto has asked admiringly:“How are you ever going to imitate that?”

56.   A mussel grips a hard surface very firmly to         .

A. seal itself from being damaged by sea water

B. produce the waterproof super glue

C. protect itself from being blown away by strong wind

D. protect itself from being the food of other animals

57.   The waterproof super glue originates in         .

A. the mussel’s tongue-shaped foot

B. some glands in the mussel’s body

C. the thread given off by the mussel

D. the channel of the mussel’s foot

58.   To tie itself safely to a new homea mussel must         .

A. produce a thread to anchor to the hard surface

B. draw air and water from its pad-like structure

C. hold down a tent as human beings do

D. place many anchor lines strategically

59.   Scientists are not thinking of using mussels to produce the super glue mainly because of         .

A. the possible mass-production of the super glue

B. their concern about the cost of collecting mussels

C. their concern about the extinction of the species

D. the world’s limited demand for the super glue

60.   The main idea of this passage is that         .

A. mussels can be used to produce super glue

B. mussels are much smarter than we think

C. it is important to protect mussels

D. mussels have an amazing power useful to man

Part Cloze10 minutes10 points

DirectionsIn this partthere is a passage with twenty blanks. For each blank there are four choices marked ABC and D. Choose the best answer for each blank and mark the corresponding letter on your ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.

In recent years a new farming revolution has begunone that involves the    61    of life at a fundamental levelthe gene. The study of genetics has    62    a new industry called biotechnology. As the name suggestit    63    biology and modern technology through such techniques as genetic engineering. Some of the new biotech companies specialize in agriculture and are working feverishly to    64    seeds that give a high yieldthat    65    diseasesdrought and frostand that reduce the need for    66    chemicals. If such goals could be achievedit would be most    67   . But some have raised concerns about genetically engineered crops.

In naturegenetic diversity is created within certain    68   . A rose can be crossed with a different kind of rosebut a rose will never cross with a potato. Genetic engineering   69    usually involves taking genes from one species and inserting them into another    70    to transfer a desired characteristic. This could meanfor exampleselecting a gene which leads to the production of a chemical with anti-freeze    71    from an artic fishand inserting it into a potato or strawberry to make it frost-resistant.    72   thenbiotechnology allows humans to

   73    the genetic walls that separate species.

Like the green revolution   74    some call the gene revolution contributes to the problem of genetic uniformitysome say even more so    75    geneticists can employ techniques such as cloning and    76    culture(培养),processes that produce perfectly    77    copies. Concerns about the erosion of biodiversitythereforeremain. Genetically altered plantshoweverraise new    78   such as the effects that they may have on us and the environment.We are flying blindly into a new    79    of agricultural biotechnology with high hopesfew constraintsand little idea of the potential    80   ,”said science writer Jeremy Rifkin.

61.   A. manufacture         B. management         C. manipulation              D. maturity

62.   A. got along with             B. lived up to                 C. come up with      D. given rise to

63.   A. blends                 B. breeds                     C. broods                      D. blasts

64.   A. hatch                     B. patent                    C. duplicate                  D. train

65.   A. restrict                   B. retrieve                  C. reverse                    D. resist

66.   A. hazardous               B. hydraulic                  C. hostile                      D. harmless

67.   A. surprising                B. disappointing        C. beneficial         D. extreme

68.   A. lines                            B. ages                       C. space                     D. limits

69.   A. after all                  B. on the other hand     C. in any case        D. as a result

70.   A. in an attempt             B. in no case         C. to the point                  D. with regard

71.   A. quality                          B. quantity                   C. priority                    D. property

72.   A. In advance                B. In part                          C. In essence           D. In return

73.   A. breach                   B. blaze                     C. brake                       D. brand

74.   A. where                   B. as                        C. what                        D. so

75.   A. that                    B. because           C. if                          D. when

76.   A. skin                            B. muscle                   C. organ                      D. tissue

77.   A. resembling               B. identical                C. similar                     D. alike

78.   A. difficulties              B. height                    C. issues                         D. goals

79.   A. spot                      B. scheme               C. deadline                    D. era

80.   A. outcomes                  B. mystery                         C. navigation                  D. destination

Paper Two试卷二(60 minutes

Part Error Detection5 minutes5 points

DirectionsEach of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked ABC and D. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect. Thenwrite down the corresponding letter andwith out altering the meaning of the sentenceput the correction on the ANSWER SHEET.

81.   The farmer knows something that the whole civilized mankind seems to have forgotten

        A                                 B                       C

namelywhen the resources of life on our planet are not inexhaustible.

         D

82. Unable to see their business as a separate entitymany people fail to make a distinction

     A                      B

between their company and them.

   C                    D

83. As I looked at the carpetI wished that it could speaksince it must witness many interesting

                                      A           B        C

events in the past decade.

      D

84. Twenty years in prison are a ridiculously harsh penalty for an action that wasafter allagreed

                      A                                   B         C

upon by both people involved.

                    D

85. The clever method was paid attention by very few technicians until the early 1970s.

                   A       B                         C   D

86. The worlds remained tropical forests are being destroyed so fast thatat current trendsby the

                 A                       B                 C

middle of this centuryonly the most inaccessible will remain.

                               D

87. They are newcomers and don’t realize what takes it to start and run a business here.

                            A      B    C             D

88. I live in an apartment where you don’t have any sun and so can’t even grow anything in a

          A               B           C            D

flower pot.

 

89. The reason why I love watching Tony surf is because he is so graceful and beautiful when he

             A          B         C      D

surfs.

 

90. Hardly would he arrive at his office when his phone calls came in rapid succession.

               A                 B         C                 D

Part Translation35 minutes20 points

Section A

DirectionsTranslate the following passage into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.

Another kind of distinction that can be made among works of art is whether they were intended as objects to be looked at or to be used. The fine artssuch as painting and sculptureinvolve the production of works to be seen and experienced on an abstract level. Pieces of fine art may evoke emotional or spiritual responses in us. Those who love the fine arts feel that these responses are very valuablefor they expand our awareness of the great richness of life itself.

Section B

DirectionsTranslate the following paragraph into English. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.

1718世纪,中国的艺术、建筑学以及哲学,在西方很受欣赏。此外,中国的丝绸、茶叶和瓷器(porcelain)在西方也备受欢迎,并在一定程度上改变了许多西方人的生活方式。进入20世纪后期,西方人再一次转向中国文化。他们除了喜欢中国菜肴外,还学习汉语,尝试中医药,练习中国武术,观看功夫电影。

Part Guided Writing25 minutes15 points

DirectionsRead the story in Chinese belowand then write a composition of no less than 150 words under the title ofThe Goal of Life. Your composition should be based on the story and the following outline

1. What have you learned from the story

2. What is the goal of your lifeIf you have achieved the goal of your lifewhat would you do

  

在英国有一位残疾青年,他双腿走起路来很困难,却凭着坚强的信念和毅力创造了一次又一次的壮举:他19岁时登上了世界最高峰珠穆朗玛峰;21岁时登上了阿尔卑斯山;22岁时登上了乞力马扎罗山。28岁前他登上了世界上所有著名的高山。然而,就在28岁这一年他自杀了。原来在他11岁时,他父母在攀登乞力马扎罗山时不幸遭遇雪崩双双遇难。他的父母在临行前给他留下了遗嘱,希望他能像父母一样,登上世界上所有著名的高山。这位残疾青年把父母的遗嘱作为他人生奋斗的目标,当实现全部目标的时候,他感到前所未有的无奈和绝望。他留下遗言:“如今,功成名就的我感到无事可做了,我没有了新的目标……”

2004年同等学力人员申请硕士学位英语水平全国统一考试试题答案与解析

Paper One 试卷一(90 minutes

Part Listening Comprehension(略)

Part Vocabulary

Section A

16.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】黑格被选为保守党领袖,部分原因是他在有关英国与欧盟其他成员国地位问题上所持的模糊观点。

【考点类型】修饰限定

【考点剖析】ambitious“有野心的,有抱负的”;obscure“不清楚的,含糊的,晦涩的”;appalling“骇人听闻的”;indifferent“漠不关心的”。在四个选项中,修饰views(看法,意见,见解)比较合适的只有obscure;而且ambiguous的含义也为“含糊的,不明确的”。

17.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】他的经历告诉我们一点儿顽强与对荣誉和名声的淡泊是怎样导致伟大的成就的。

【考点类型】因果推断

【考点剖析】persuasion“说服”;determination“决心”;devotion“献身,热诚”;reservation“(权力等的)保留”。能导致伟大的成就的不可能是persuasionreservationdevotion符合语境,但它不能被gentle修饰;因此只有B是正确选项(stubbornness“倔强,顽强”)。

18.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】我们有责任确保祖国的持续繁荣昌盛,而最明智的方式是投资于基础科学的研究。

【考点类型】修饰限定

【考点剖析】effective“效果明显的”;efficient“效率高的”;significant“重要的,有意义的”;reasonable“合理的”。sensible“明智的,合情合理的”,所以答案为D

19.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】所有汇报给委员会或以类似的方式获得的信息都被认为是机密的。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】in a similar way“以类似的方式”;in another way“以另一种方式”;in a direct way“直接地”;in an unauthorized way“以未经许可的方式”。从reported to or likewise obtained推断出委员会的信息来源于汇报或者其他类似的方式(likewise),所以in a similar way是正确选项。

20.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】我之所以给这所旅馆如此高的评价是因为它所处的环境太优美了。

【考点类型】因果推断

【考点剖析】as a result of“作为结果”;because of“因为”;with regard to“关于”;with a view to“着眼于,以……为目的,考虑到”。因为(on account ofits wonderful location,所以I would recommend this inn highly;前后是因果关系,B是正确选项。

21.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】电视广告不仅仅反映主流意识形态。

【考点类型】反义复现

【考点剖析】exactly“确切地,精确地”;faithfully“忠实地,诚心诚意地”;repeatedly“反复地,再三地”;simply“仅仅”。do more than 是对merely的否定,由此可以推断出merely是“仅仅,只”的意思。

22.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】法律条款对这个部门的运转有着很大的影响。

【考点类型】修饰限定

【考点剖析】law“法令,法典”;passage“(文章等的)一节,一段”;revision“校正,修订”;clause“(章程、条约等的)条款”。legislative(立法的,立法机关的)只能修饰clause

23.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】尽管这台有毛病的设备出了故障,但一些很有帮助的工作已经完成了。

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】imperfect“不完全的,有缺点的”;temporary“暂时的,临时的”;emergency“突然事件,紧急时刻”;reinstalled“重新装配的”。由problem可以推断faulty的含义是“有缺点的,有毛病的”。

24.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】关于气候变化的会谈716号在德国的波恩重新启动,以便应对全球变暖的问题。

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】focus on“聚焦于”;settle down“定居,专心于”;fight against“对抗”;sum up“总计,总结,概括”。举行会谈的目的是为了应对或解决全球变暖的问题,可以推断combat“抗击,与……抗争”。

25.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】鲍勃认为,市场进入大学正在侵蚀基本的学术价值是,我们必须立即采取行动来遏止这种衰退。

【考点类型】动宾搭配

【考点剖析】lace“扎带子”;plug“赌,塞”;cease“停止,终了”;digest“消化”。四个选项中只有C才能与宾语decline搭配。

Section B

26.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】当地人几乎想不出任何好办法来摆脱他们忍受的贫困。

【考点类型】动宾搭配

【考点剖析】shake off“抖落,摆脱”;ward off“避开,挡住”;put off“推迟,拖延”;take off“取消,脱衣,起飞”。四个选项中,poverty只能和A搭配。

27.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】政府的三个部门——立法、执法和司法机构——通过各自独立的功能相互制约来达到均衡。

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】lawful“合法的,法定的”;just“公正的,公平的”;judicial“司法的”;legal“法定的,合法的”。所填词应与legislative(立法的,有立法权的)和executive(执行的,有执行权的)并列,只有C满足要求。

28.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】根据观测员对火球亮度的估计,他推断在太空中的主体部分直径在40英尺260英尺之间。

【考点类型】惯用搭配

【考点剖析】deduce“推论,推断,演绎(from)”;reduce“减少,缩小”;induce“劝诱,促使,导致”;produce“生产”。deduce常与from搭配表示“由……推断出”。

29.   【正确答案】A

【句子翻译】他们提供了一种能记录数千篇期刊论文的方法,这些论文每月或每年出版。

【考点类型】惯用搭配

【考点剖析】keep track of“了解”;keep contact with“与……保持联系”;relationstep不与keep连用。

30.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】你可以用课程表来帮助提醒你的学生重要的课程日期,比如考试日。

【考点类型】惯用搭配

【考点剖析】warn sb. of sth.“警告某人……”;remind sb. of sth.“提醒某人……”;convince sb. of sth.“使某人相信……”;deprive sb. of sth.“使某人失去……”。课程表的作用显然是用来提醒人们的,所以B是正确答案。

31.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】在4~8岁的孩子所看的图画书中,有一些杰出的作品把原文和富有想象的插图结合在了一起。

【考点类型】近义词辨析

【考点剖析】imaginable“可以想象得到的”;imaginative“想象的,富于想象力的”;imaging“成想象”;imageless“无形象的,无意象的”。

32.   【正确答案】B

【句子翻译】由权威杂志 《哲学家杂志》 进行的,针对1000多名哲学家、教师和学生的一项调查把查尔斯·达尔文的 《物种起源》 评为第三重要的著作。

【考点类型】形似词辨析

【考点剖析】Sperm“精子,精液”;Species“物种”;Spectrum“光谱,波谱等”;Specimen“样本,样品”。众所周知,达尔文写的名著叫 《物种起源》。

33.   【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】当数以百万计的候鸟布满天空时,欧洲科学家宣称这种季节性的奇迹似乎取决于一个看似矛盾的现象:鸟儿越胖,飞行得越有效率。

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】 interruption“打断,中断”;description“叙述,描述”;qualification“资格”;contradiction“矛盾”。The fatter the birdthe more efficiently it flies是一个悖论,所以用contradiction才能描述这个结论的特征。

34.   【正确答案】C

【句子翻译】这个政党的领袖以他给国家带来了政治上的安定和经济上的发展证明他参加后来的再选是正确的。

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】in the way“挡道”;by no means“绝不”;on the grounds that“以……为由”;to the extent“到……的程度”。主从句之间是因果关系。

35. 【正确答案】D

【句子翻译】为了帮助那些被过时400年的笑话弄糊涂的年轻读者,英国的一位权威学者建议将莎士比亚的作品评为现代英语。

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】in memory of“纪念”;at the cost of“以……为代价”;on behalf of“代表……”;for the benefit of“为……的利益”。英国学者的建议是为了帮助困惑的年轻观众,只有D符合语境。

Part Reading Comprehension

Passage One

孩子们生活在一个科学具有重要作用的世界里。在他们的一生中,科学将会越来越多地影响到他们。他们中的许多人迟早会从事于对科学依赖很强的工作。作为有投票权者,当对涉及科学的问题作出决定时,他们有发言权比如有关能源、污染控制、高速公路安全问题、荒地保护以及人口增长方面的决定。作为纳税人,他们将支付科学研究以及科学探索所需的费用。作为消费者,他们将会受到广告的困扰,而据说大部分的广告是建立在科学基础上的。

因此,儿童作为未来公民,从实用性方面获得科学知识,了解科学进程,科学精髓,以及科学事实与原理是非常重要的。幸运的是,科学对年轻人有自然的吸引力。他们能够把科学与他们遇到的许多东西联系起来——手电筒、工具、回声以及彩虹。

此外,科学是一种极好的教学传媒,它所传授的知识远远超过教学内容本身。科学能够帮助学生学会逻辑思维,组织分析自己的想法。在提供交流技能和数学能力的同时,科学可以为同学提供实践机会。事实上,科学可以为任何一门课程作出贡献,无论是地理、历史、语言艺术、音乐还是艺术!

最重要的是,好的科学教学引导大家养成所谓的“科学态度”。那些拥有科学态度的人通过观察、实验以及推理来寻求答案,而不是盲目接受别人的观点。他们重视证据,小心谨慎地得出结论。在尊重其他人的观点的同时,他们期待真实、准确和客观,他们反对草率的判断以及笼统的概括。所有的孩子都应该培养这种解决问题的方法,但是不能期望这种方法在获得信息的过程中自动出现。通过引导参与,不断的实践是必要的。

36. 【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】科学对于孩子来讲是非常重要的原因之一是:他们中的许多人将       

A. 工作在科学研究机构                                 B. 从事一些和科学紧密相关的工作

C. 做出最后的决定时要涉及科学                    D. 为科学研究和科学探索赞助资金

线索:文章第1段中第1句话提到孩子们生活在科学具有重要作用的世界里,后面接着分析原因,因为他们中的许多人迟早会从事主要依靠科学的工作,所以B是正确答案。

【考点提示】在对细节问题做出判断时,要注意上下文左右之间的联系,从中发现问题的答案所在。

37.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】因果细节判断             

【解析过程】毫无疑问,孩子们喜欢科学因为       

A. 科学和他们遇到的许多事情有关

B. 科学对于孩子们是一个非常简单的学科

C. 他们每天都会遇到科学的原则和事实

D. 他们非常熟悉科学的过程和实质

线索:文章的第2段提到“Thereforeit is important that childrenthe citizens of the futurebecome functionally acquainted with sciencewith the process and spirit of scienceas well as with its facts and principles.”表明答案A为正确选项。选项C不对的原因是因为它只提到了文章原文说的一部分“as well as with its facts and principles”,而忽略另一部分“with the process and spirit of science”,所以是不正确的。

【考点提示】几个论据并存的时候,其中的某一个论据是不能单独提出来支持论点,一定要用它们的总结性的内容才可以。

38.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】主旨判断             

【解析过程】当        时,学生能够学习逻辑思考。

A. 练习沟通技能         B. 学习地理                C. 学习艺术                D. 学习科学

线索:文章的第3段提到“Besidesscience is an excellent medium for teaching far more than content. It can help pupils learn to think logicallyto organize and analyze ideas.”表明D为正确选项。其他3个选项不正确原因有两个:①文章主要是讨论科学的,所以其他3个选项和文章的主题就不符合。②文章说科学可以帮助学习逻辑;同时说到科学可以在学习地理,学习艺术,学习沟通能力上起到作用,但并没有说这些论据之间有任何的关系。也就是说,逻辑的学习和地理或艺术是没有什么关系的。

【考点提示】论据之间一般是并列的关系,也就是说你不可以把论据1和论据2的内容放到一个选项里,改成因果或递进关系,这时是肯定不对的。

39.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】有科学态度的人们       

A. 准备接受别人的观点                                 B. 会非常确定地得出结论

C. 知道别人很有可能会作出仓促的结论         D.通过观察、实验和推理寻找真理

线索:文章的第4段提到“Those who possess it seek answers through observingexperimentingand reasoningrather than blindly accepting the pronouncements of others.”表明D答案为正确选项。选项ABC很明显是和原文第4段的内容相反。

【考点提示】同学们在做题的时候,可以适当的根据常识去判断那一个选项是正确的答案,比如该题的第2个选项“会非常确定地得出结论”很容易判断出它不是正确答案,因为和常识是不符合的。而第4个选项内容比较具有概括性,而且和常识也比较符合,所以我们可以把重点放到它的身上。

40.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】推断             

【解析过程】文章作者似乎       

A. 证明科学是一个非常成功的课程

B. 指出科学作为一门课程在学校传授得并不好

C. 指出科学应该包括在学校的课程表里

D. 预测学习科学的孩子将成为好的科学家

线索:文章的最后一段提到“All children should be developing this approach to solving problemsbut it cannot be expected to appear automatically with the mere acquisition of information. Continual practicethrough guided participationis needed.”表明C为正确答案。选项A是原文中没有提到的,文章只提到科学是很有用的学科,但没有说它是一个非常成功的学校课程,所以它是对原文信息的错误推理。

【考点提示】推断题如果是最后的一道题,那很有可能是和文章的最后一段有关系或和文章的中心有关联。而且,要注意的是如果答案有比较绝对化的选项,那它一般是不正确的。

Passage Two

我一直很惊奇过去几年中我父母的个性的转变。当时是大约十二月中旬,他们就从父母变成了祖父母。是的,他们成了祖父母,完全不同于十一个半月之前我所熟悉的父母。

我父母发生变化的第一个表现就是他们在逛玩具与儿童服饰店时所表现出来的喜悦。这两个不喜欢任何与购物商场有关的东西的人,却变成了疯狂的消费者。在他们告诉我要预算我的开支、明智购物时,他们自己却买下了所有见到的玩偶和自卸玩具卡车。而且,这还只是假期的开始!

我兄弟的孩子来玩时,爷爷和奶奶就会精神饱满。首先,他们会撇开所有关于孙子饮食平衡的观念。我们成长在这样一个家庭中,我们每个人只能吃一两口玉米、甜菜或是猪肝(尽管我们经常为此发牢骚,但是这些食物经常出现在饭桌上),但是,这些孙子们却从来不必吃那些对他们没有吸引力的东西。奶奶为了让最小的孙子跟着她满屋子跑口袋里装着巧克力。而爷爷则整天用冰糖和蛋糕给孙子们制造“惊喜”。一盒盒的巧克力饼干被吃光了,而纯麦面包却变硬、变质了。孩子们喜欢所有糖果,并且,在糖果增强了孩子们活力时,爷爷和奶奶通常决定出去买更多的东西回来,或是上床休息,而我的兄弟和嫂子就会尽力照料他们高度活跃的孩子。

一旦孙子们来了,爷爷和奶奶也似乎忘记了所有我在日常生活中经常听到的职责训诫。如果米奇在吃饭时对他的妹妹尖叫,他就被认为是在“培养他自己的个性”;如果南希打破了奶奶的镜子,她就被认为“只是一个好奇的孩子”。但是,在我帮忙卸杂货时,如果我把泥土带进屋子,就会被认为“粗心大意”;如果我责怪某个孙子撕了我的课本几页纸,就会被认为“没有耐性”。如果保拉与她妈妈顶嘴,爷爷和奶奶就会对她的勇气报以微笑。如果我对这种溺爱有一点说辞,我的父母就会再次和我谈论我的嫉妒之心。

41. 【正确答案】B

【考点类型】态度             

【解析过程】关于祖父母给他们的孙子买东西,作者的看法是       

A. 感觉嫉妒                                                   B. 感觉惊讶

C. 认为是不必要的                                         D. 认为是令人很生气

线索:文章的第1段提到“My surprise over the past few winters has been the personality transformation my parents go through...”表明作者的态度是非常的惊讶,因此B为正确答案。

【考点提示】有些答案设计上是不太符合我们常识的判断,对于这些选项一般是两种情况,大部分是不正确的选项,有些如果涉及科学常识,那么有可能是正确的答案。如这篇文章是一篇社会学的文章,选项A说作者对于祖父母给他们的孙子买东西这件事是感觉嫉妒,很明显是不正确的。

42.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】小孩子们吃完糖后会发生什么?

A. 他们会变得很活跃。                                 B. 他们会安静下来。

C. 他们会要更多的糖。                                  D. 他们会上床睡觉。

线索:文章的第3段提到“The kids love all the sweetsand when the sugar raises their energy levelsGrandma and Grandpa can always decide to leave and do a bit more shopping or go to bed while my brother and sister-in-law try to deal with their highly active kids.”表明表明孩子吃完糖后,会变得非常的活跃,所以A为正确选项。混淆选项BD其实同学们可以体会出,它们说的是一回事情,上床睡觉不就是安静下来吗?

【考点提示】注意选项之间的逻辑关系是一个非常重要的解题切入点。

43.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】下面那句话对于这些来访的孩子是不正确的?

A. 他们表现得很好。                                     B. 他们非常喜欢巧克力。

C. 他们从祖父母那里收到很多玩具。             D. 他们非常地快乐。

线索:文章的第3段提到了祖父母们非常的疼爱自己的孙子孙女们,唯独没有提到孩子们的表现很好。所以表明答案A为正确选项。

【考点提示】选项BCD说的是一件事情,孩子们都非常的高兴,而选项A和其他3个选项正好是相反的逻辑关系,这样我们比较容易地排除其他3个选项,而选中A

44.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】推断             

【解析过程】从文章中可以推论出,当作者是一个小孩的时候,他       

A. 喜欢他吃的食物                                        B. 拿到许多零花钱

C. 被父母惯坏了                                            D. 如果淘气就会被父母责备

线索:文章的第4段提到“Butif I track mud into the house while helping to unload groceriesI become careless”表明答案D为正确选项。

【考点提示】和上一道试题是一样的,选项之间的逻辑关系是ABC表示作者受到了父母的疼爱,D选项和其他选项相反,这样D选项正确率就比较高。

45. 【正确答案】D

【考点类型】主旨判断             

【解析过程】作者父母的“个性转变”意味着他们       

A. 变成了富有爱心的父母                              B. 成为了严厉的父母

C. 不再照顾作者                                            D. 过去相信对孩子要严格管理

线索:本题涉及整个文章的理解,“个性转变”关键是“转变”这个词,表示作者的父母以前和现在完全不同,通过阅读文章可以清楚地看到作者的父母现在是比较宠爱自己的孙子,作者非常惊讶,以前是完全不一样的,所以答案选择D

【考点提示】文章的首段和文章的末段经常会包含一些表达作者态度的关键词,比如该题的surprise就是一个,同学们在读文章的时候一定要注意到这一点,抓住作者的态度。

Passage Three

狄耶哥·切尔皮罗从一出生就被法定为失明,他不是一个同父母一起生活到成年的意大利著名的“妈妈的宝贝”。27岁的他独自生活在米兰,从事网络管理工作,他热爱跳水,梦想与一群视力障碍者一起驾船横穿大西洋。

很显然,他不是你所认为的普通的残疾人——尤其是在意大利。这个国家获得平等的壁垒几乎比欧洲大陆其他任何国家都多:在欧洲国家中,意大利提供给残疾人的便利设施排名倒数第三,仅位于希腊和葡萄牙之前。尤其对于那些使用轮椅的人来说,他们感觉在该国的鹅卵石马路上行走,乘坐公共汽车,或是到饭店就餐、到商店购物以及去博物馆参观是非常困难的。不到25%的意大利残疾人有工作,与之相比,欧洲残疾人的就业率为47%

但是,意大利的肢体残疾人面临的实质性挑战的最大障碍实际上可能是虚构的家庭。由于残疾所导致的社交缺陷,“人们想让残疾人待在家里”,避开公众的视线,吉尔万尼·马里解释道,他是米兰一个就业培训中心的负责人,该中心主要满足残疾人的需求。因此,根据调查,虽然在意大利15%的家庭都有一名残疾者,但是,据报道,只有2%的意大利人和残疾人一同上学, 4%的意大利人和残疾人一同工作。

意大利人正在开始认识到这个问题。过去十年来,政府已经通过了一些针对工作场所的歧视和所需便利设施等许多方面的法令。欧盟最近的一项研究表明,85%的意大利人承认,为残疾人提供的公共交通设施和基础设施不够;97%的人认为,有必要采取行动。但是,最大的障碍却是心理上的,“意大利的公司害怕雇用残疾人,”切尔皮罗说。他说,对于意大利的残疾人来说,改变这种现状的唯一方法就是做他曾经做过的事——走出家门,要求改变。

46. 【正确答案】C

【考点类型】词汇推理             

【解析过程】下面的哪个词可以描述“妈妈的孩子”?

A. 普通的。                B. 乐观的。                C. 依靠性的。             D. 渴望的。

线索:文章的第1段提到“Diego Chiapellolegally blind since birthisnt one of Italys famousmamas boyswho live with their parents into adulthood.”表明C为正确答案。

【考点提示】词汇推理题一般是根据考察词汇出现的位置向上或向下搜索,不能根据该词的字典含义判断,比如该题要向下搜索,因为“mamas boys”后面有一个定语从句对它进行修饰。

47. 【正确答案】A

【考点类型】举例作用             

【解析过程】本文中,切尔皮罗被引用为一个        的例子。

A. 不同寻常的意大利残疾人                          B. 鼓舞人的一名失明海员

C. 典型的残疾人                                            D. 脆弱的欧洲残疾人

线索:文章的第2段提到“Obviouslyhes not your average disabled personbut especially so in Italy.”很显然,他不是你所认为的普通的残疾人尤其是在意大利,表明A为正确答案。

【考点提示】举例作用题的特点是例子一般比较复杂,不好理解,但举例的目的是考察例子的作用是什么,所以同学们在看到文章中举某人的话或数字等例子时,要保持警惕,重点是判断出该例子的目的是什么,就可以了。

48. 【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】在意大利,残疾人最有可能去哪里?

A. 大街上。                B. 在家里。                C. 在学校里。             D. 工作。

线索:文章的第3段提到“Because of the social defect that still attaches to disabilities,‘they tend to keep disabled people at homeand out of public viewexplains Giovanni Marri”表明B为正确答案。

【考点提示】细节题的判断是根据题干的关键词,如该题的题干中有一个关键词most表示“最”的含义,那么根据该词回原文找它的相关出处,是第3段第1句话“But the biggest obstacle for the countrys physically challenged may,”最大的问题是……,这一点是非常关键的。

49. 【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】意大利的大众最有可能赞成       

A. 身体上的缺陷是残疾人的最大障碍

B. 我们应该做些工作去解除对残疾人的障碍

C. 对于残疾人的工作偏见很难被人们认同

D. 残疾人应该减少去公众场所的需要

线索:文章的第4段提到“A recent study by the European Union found that 85 percent of Italians admit that public transportation and infrastructure(基础设施)are inadequate for the handicappedand 97 percent say action is needed.”表明B为正确答案。选项A,最大的障碍在文章的第3段提到了,但不是身体的缺陷,而是他们的家庭,所以该选项是对原文信息的错误联想。

【考点提示】混淆选项的设计上一般是从原文中挑出一些和题干不相关的信息,然后通过对原文信息错误的联想,错误的推理或是错误的判断等方式,迷惑同学们。这里就需要大家一定要了解各种阅读文章的行文结构,从文章的结构入手,非常明确文章中信息和信息之间的关系,才能避免错误。

50.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】主旨推断             

【解析过程】文章主要说的是什么?

A. 意大利在帮助残疾人的方面做得不够

B. 意大利的残疾人应该从他们的家里走出来

C. 意大利人对于残疾人的问题不闻不问

D. 意大利人帮助残疾人的方法应该受到鼓励

线索:从整个文章的结构来看,文章是属于问题解决型的文章,问题是意大利残疾人的现状非常令人担忧,然后尝试性地在最后一段给出了解决办法,让他们从家里走出来,并寻找改变。这样看,文章的主题应该是A。选项B文章最后一句提到了,但只有一句话,不可能成文章的主题。

【考点提示】问题解决型文章是每年同等学力常考的一种类型文章,其结构是问题——说明问题的严重性——分析问题产生的原因——给出解决该问题的办法——作者对该办法的评价。考点一般是在问题和问题的解决办法上。

Passage Four

撰写科学论文的平均人数在急剧增长。一部分原因是因为实验室的规模扩大,问题更加复杂,并且需要更多不同的附属专业。这也是因为美国政府机构开始提倡“团队科学”的缘故。“二战”以后,随着物理学的发展,联邦基金会建造了许多昂贵的国有设施,这些给人们造成了一种表面现象,在这种表面现象之下,协作自然可以明确化。

然而,多重作者署名——不管在其他方面可能有多么优秀——都给这些作者所在的杂志和机构造成了问题。对于杂志来说,长长的作者名单让他们很难处理。但是,当作品出错时,这长长的名单就会导致更严重的问题。如果出现研究错误,那么该如何区分这些作者应该承担什么样的责任呢?如果作品中的一部分而不是其他部分出现了真正的错误,那么评估人员应该如何对他或她作出评论呢?

有关这个话题一直存在争论,人们提出了各种各样实际的和不切实际的建议。其中之一就是:每个作者都应该提供一份关于作者本人对作品所做出的特殊贡献的说明,杂志随后应该公开发表该声明。但是,一旦到了大学委员会,涉及任命与提拔时,作者署名就会变得非常重要,这是关于这个问题的一个相反的观点,也许也是一个解决方案。一生中一半的时间卷入这种事情,使我明白作者的署名关系重大。我曾经看到大学委员会试图解释名字的顺序,对一篇过多引用的论文到底是投稿者自己完成的还是几人合作完成的这种事情感到极度痛苦,于是便退回推荐,询问更多有关责任区分的特征。

这类问题改变了这种争论,通过要求作者明确自己的任务帮助解决了这个问题。毕竟,如果有关个体的质量判断打算建立在一个人贡献的基础上,那么评委们就可以更好地了解他们都做了什么。但是,如果整个作品的正确性出了问题,那么不管是作为对其行为提出异议还是作为对其所在领域产生的影响的评估,团队就是团队,其成员应该分享荣誉,分担耻辱。

51. 【正确答案】C

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】根据文章,有一种趋势是科学论文        

A. 变得越来越复杂                                        B. 正在处理更大的问题

C. 更多的是个团队的工作                              D. 相比社会科学,更加关注自然科学

线索:文章的第1段和本文讨论的重点来看,表明C为正确答案。AB错在对原文信息的错误联想,原文是说“Thats partly because labs are biggerproblems are more complicated”而不是说“科学论文越来越复杂或处理更大的问题”,虽说都是原文的信息,但把它们错误连接是肯定不对的。

【考点提示】细节判断题考点就是考察同学们的精读能力,所以最好在大家做该题的时候,要注意和原文的信息对比审查,然后得出正确答案。

52. 【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】多重署名权的一个问题是它很难       

A. 如果论文有问题如何去明确责任

B. 去决定每一个评论家已经作出多少贡献

C. 分配作者扮演的不同的角色

D. 当读者感觉需要的时候和作者交流

线索:文章的第2段提到“But those long lists give rise to more serious questions when something goes wrong with the paper”表明A为正确答案。B选项是不对的,原文中没有提到这一点。

【考点提示】阅读文章有一个关键的前提,就是词汇量的多少。比如本篇文章的结构不是很复杂,但是文章中提到一些比较生僻的词汇不容易理解,这样建议同学们要在平时多背单词,多掌握一些背词的方法,比如词根词缀记忆法等。

53. 【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】根据文章,当        ,署名是非常重要的。

A. 作者可行或不可行的建议被考虑时

B. 涉及作者的任命或提拔的时候

C. 评审人员需要评价作者的出版物时

D. 作者的出版物被经常引用的时候

线索:文章的第3段提到“But a different view of the problemand perhaps of the solutioncomes as we get to university committee on appointments and promotionswhich is where the authorship rubber really meets the road.”表明B为正确答案。

【考点提示】所问非所答指的是作者从文章中选择出一些内容,这些内容一般是出现在正确答案的附近,然后把这些内容作为混淆选项出现,这些内容是比较具有迷惑性的,同学们一不小心,就容易选错。

54.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】根据文章,一篇论文的署名应该只有一个作者,取决于       

A. 判断是对论文本身还是对作者做出的

B. 作者需要分享的是荣誉还是责备

C. 论文会涉及多少作者

D. 论文会在哪里出版

线索:文章的第四段提到“After allif quality judgments about individuals are to be made on the basis of their personal contributionsthen the judges better know what they did. But if....”表明A为正确答案。B选项是典型的错误,因为它是在文章的最后一段的最后一句出现,给同学们的印象是最深的,所以一不小心就容易选择错误。作者的署名是放到一起还是独立出现,不可能是看作者需要分担的是荣誉还是责备来决定。

【考点提示】出题老师一般有一种设计混淆选项的方法,就是利用文章的最后一句话设计陷阱,给大家一个错觉,选择它就是正确答案。所以同学们以后在做文章的时候,判断选项的正误,选项中如果有文章的最后一句话照抄,可以先把该选项排除出去。

55.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】主旨判断             

【解析过程】这篇文章的最好的标题是       

A. 描写科学论文:出版还是消亡                   B. 描写科学论文的合作和责任

C. 团队科学的优势和不足                              D. 多重作者,多重问题

线索:文章整体是表达作者署名混乱引发的问题,所以选项D是最合适的答案。B选项的范围过于宽泛了。C选项又只是文章提到的一个细节,也不正确。

【考点提示】主旨题是一种比较难做的题目,可以用一种“串联法”把各个题目的题干串联在一起,然后看它们共同在说一个什么事情,这个内容一般就是文章的主旨了。

Passage Five

是什么制成了防水强力胶水,就像真空吸尘器一样,甚至教会了科学家有关基因修复的知识?这个低等的小甲壳水生动物,就是所谓的贻贝!

贻贝可以在全世界找到。一些贻贝生长在海洋里,其他贻贝寄居在淡水溪流和湖泊中。当你试图从块岩石上移动一个贻贝时,你会发现,贻贝与岩石之间的结合如此牢固让人难以置信——这是必要的,如果贻贝想要抵抗一只饥饿海鸟的凶猛捕食,或者抵抗海浪的冲刷。贻贝是如何粘贴得那么紧的呢?当贻贝选择一个地方建造自己的家时,它就会将它的像舌头一样的脚伸出它的贝壳外,把脚紧紧按压在一个固体的表面上。特殊的腺组织分泌出一种液体的蛋白质混合物,这种混合物流进一个导管,这个导管顺着脚延展。这种液体迅速硬化成为一根细的、有弹性的长约一英寸的细丝。接着,这根细丝末端的一个微小垫状组织分泌出某种天然的胶状物质,贻贝会抬起脚,第一个固定线路就完成了。战略性地放置这些细线形成了束线,这就将贻贝与它的新家牢牢地连接在一起,这种方法与人们用绳子搭建帐篷的方法极为相似。整个过程只需三到四分钟。

想象一下拥有这种强力无毒胶水,它如此柔韧,以至于可以渗透进最小的洞和角落,粘到任何表面上,甚至在水中。造船工程师们会喜欢它,因为它不必支付昂贵的干燥船只的费用就可以修复船只。车身工人也会喜欢真正的防水涂料,使车身不生锈。外科医生也会非常喜欢这种安全黏合剂,以便连接断裂的骨头,缝合伤口……这种胶水的可能用途的清单似乎没有止境。

不过,科学家并没有考虑利用贻贝本身来生产这种强力胶水。只是生产1胶水就需要大约10000个甲壳水生动物。因此,收集足够的贻贝来满足全球对强力胶水的需求会导致贻贝的灭绝,而且许多贻贝物种已经处于灭绝危险了。于是,美国的研究人员分离了五种贻贝蛋白质并且克隆出了它们的基因,他们将在实验室大量培育这些基因。然而,贻贝总是领先一步。只有贻贝本能地知道每种表面所需的蛋白质的精确混合。分子生物学家弗兰克·罗伯特赞赏地问道,“你们打算如何去模仿它呢?”

56. 【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】贻贝抓住坚硬的表面,目的是       

A. 保护自己不被海水伤害                              B. 产生可以防水的胶水

C. 保护自身不被大风吹走                              D. 保护自身不要成为其他动物的食物

线索:文章的第2段提到“a necessity if the mussel is to resist the sharp grab of a hungry seabird or the pounding waves of the sea.”表明D为正确答案。B选项不正确,因为生产超级胶水是贻贝抓住坚硬表面的手段而不是目的。

【考点提示】细节判断题做题的步骤:仔细审题干——返回原文找线索——根据线索和选项对照——得出正确答案。

57. 【正确答案】B

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】防水的超级胶水来自       

A. 贻贝舌型的触角                                        B. 贻贝身体里的一些腺体

C. 贻贝分泌出去的线体                                  D. 贻贝触角的通道

线索:文章的第2段提到“Special glands give off a fluid mixture of proteins into a channel that runs the length of the foot. The liquid quickly hardens into a fineelastic thread about an inch long.”表明B为正确答案。C选项在文章中也提到了,但是题干说的是最初来自哪里,所以B 是正确答案。

【考点提示】细节判断题一定要细心,细心,再细心。这是唯一可以保证100%正确的做题方法。

58. 【正确答案】D

【考点类型】细节判断             

【解析过程】为了把它自身安全地固定在一个新家,贻贝必须       

A. 产生一个线体稳固在坚硬的表面

B. 从它的类似吸盘的结构中吸入空气和水

C. 像人类一样支个帐篷

D. 战略性地放置许多如锚的线体

线索:文章的第1段提到“These strategically placed threads form a bundlewhich ties the mussel to its new home in much the same way that ropes hold down a tent.”表明D为正确答案。选项C在原文中提到了,但原文中仅仅是一个比喻的例证,不是贻贝固定新家的具体方法。

【考点提示】科普文章的语言一般是比较晦涩难懂的,这就需要同学们去适当地读一些中英文的科普常识,了解一些相关的背景知识。

59.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】因果关系细节             

【解析过程】科学家们不打算使用贻贝去生产超级胶水,主要是因为       

A. 可能大规模生产超级胶水

B. 他们对于收集贻贝成本的担心

C. 他们对于这种物种灭绝的担心

D. 全世界对于超级胶水的有限的需求

线索:文章的第4段提到“It would take some 10,000 shellfish to make just one gram of glue. So collection enough mussels to supply the worlds demand for super glue would wipe out the mussel populationmany species of which are already endangered.”表明C为正确答案。

【考点提示】因果关系题一般是有明显的线索词如becausefor等,但是有些文章的内容也没有这些线索词,这就要求同学们一定要认真地阅读文章,把握句子之间的逻辑关系。

60.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】主旨推断             

【解析过程】文章的主旨是              

A. 贻贝能够被用于制作超级胶水                   B. 贻贝是要比我们认为的更聪明

C. 保护贻贝是非常重要的                              D. 贻贝对于人类有一个惊人的力量

线索:从整篇文章的中心把握,贻贝的这种产生超级胶水的能力是非常令人惊讶的,而且人类还无法复制。所以D是最好的选项。A和原文的最后一段表达的内容相反,而且它本身也不能成为文章的中心。

【考点提示】主旨题的标志:mainly aboutmainly discussthe best title;它的做法是串线法:抓首段和其余各段的第一句话,把其意思连接成一个整体。要注意总结性的提示词和转折词,特别要注意中心句。(主要针对自然段少的文章;针对自然段多的文章,主旨题最好联系中心句。找中心句最贴近的一段话)

Part Cloze

最近几年,一场新的农业革命开始了;它涉及在最根本的层次上对生命进行

   61    ——基因。遗传学的研究已经   62   叫做生物工艺新的产业。顾名思义,它通过类似于遗传工程学的技术把生物学和现代技术   63   。一些新的生物工艺公司专门从事农业,正在狂热地   64   能够带来高产的种子,能够   65   病虫害、干旱和霜冻的种子,或能够减少对   66   化学品需求的种子。如果这个目标能够实现,它将是非常   67   。但是,一些人已经开始关注遗传工程农作物。

从本质上说,遗传上的多样性是在一定的   68   下被创造出来的。一种玫瑰可以和另一种不同的玫瑰杂交,但决不能和马铃薯杂交。   69   ,遗传工程学通常是涉及从一个物种中提取基因,再把它们注入到另外一个物种   70   来转移某种想要的特性。这意味着,比如,从北极的鱼类体内提取一种能够产生具有防冻   71   化学物品的基因,并把它注入马铃薯或草莓体内,从而使它们能抵御霜冻。于是,   72   ,生物工艺学使得人类可以   73   区分物种的遗传障碍。

如同绿色革命一样,   74   一些人宣称基因革命导致遗传单一性问题——一些人评价过多   75   遗传学家能够使用一些像克隆和   76   技术培养来制造完全   77   的副本。因而,人们依然担心生物多样性遭到侵蚀的问题。然而,转基因植物引发新的   78   ,比如它们可能对我们人类和周围的环境造成的影响。科学作家杰里米·瑞夫肯说:“我们正在盲目进入一个新的农业生物工艺技术   79   ,满怀希望、没有约束、对可能的   80   知之甚少。”

61.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】manufacture“制造”;management“管理,经营”;manipulation“操纵,控制”;maturity“成熟,到期”。基因技术是一种控制生命的技术,所以选C

62.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】动宾搭配

【考点剖析】get along with“进展”,与……相处;live up to“实践,做到”;come up with“提出,赶上”;give rise to“引起,使发生”。四个选项中只有give rise to可以和a new industry搭配。

63.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】blend“混合,掺杂”;breed“繁殖,抚养”;brood“孵(蛋),仔细考虑”;blast“爆炸,毁灭,使枯萎”。句中的it指的是biotechnology,这个单词是biologytechnology的组合,所以blend与语境相符。

64.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】动宾搭配

【考点剖析】hatch“孵化,策划,图谋”;patent“取得……专利”;duplicate“复制,使加倍”;train“训练,培养,锻炼”。hatchduplicatetrain都无法和seeds搭配,所以选B

65.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】动宾搭配

【考点剖析】restrict“限制,限定”;retrieve“恢复,挽回,补救”;reverse“使颠倒,使倒转”;resist“抵抗,抵御”。BC不能与diseasesdrought and frost搭配,用restrict又不合情理,种子不可能主动去限制病虫害、干旱和霜冻,只能被动地抵御,这也是这种种子的特性;D是正确答案。

66.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】语义场共现

【考点剖析】hazardous“危险的,冒险的”;hydraulic“水力的”;hostile“敌对的,怀有敌意的”;harmless“无害的,没有恶意的”。只有有害的chemicals才需要reduce,所以A是正确选项。

67.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】surprising“令人惊讶的,不可思议的”;disappointing“令人沮丧的”;beneficial“有利的,有益的”;extreme“极端的,极限的,最后的”。such goals指的是上一句中“研制出具有各种特性的种子”。显然,如果能够研制出来,对人类应该是有利的,所以选C

68.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】line“线,绳索”;age“年龄”;space“空间”;limit“界限,限制”。根据下一句对玫瑰杂交的描述可知生物多样性的创造是有限制的,而非随意的。

69.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】逻辑衔接

【考点剖析】after all“毕竟”;on the other hand“另一方面”;in any case“无论如何”;as a result“结果”。根据语境可以推断出上下文是并列的关系,所以选B

70.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】惯用搭配

【考点剖析】in an attempt to“力图,试图”;in no case“绝不”;with regard to“关于”。这里能与介词to搭配的只有AC;但with regard to后面应跟名词或动名词,而非动词原形,所以A是正确答案。此外,整个语境叙述的是遗传工程学的目的,从语义衔接上来说也只有A符合。

71.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】quality“质量,性质,特质”;quantity“数量”;priority“优先,优先权”;property“所有权,属性,特征”。句中的antifreeze显然是一种属性,排除BC,而quality常用来描述人的品质和品味;所以只有property是最合适的。

72.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】逻辑衔接

【考点剖析】in advance“预先”;in part“部分地”;in essence“本质上,大体上,其实”;in return“作为报答”。这一句是对文章前述内容的总结,并揭示了本质上生物工艺学给人类带来的影响。

73.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】动宾搭配

【考点剖析】breach“突破”;blaze“燃烧,激昂,公开宣布”;brake“刹车”;brand“在……上打火印(标记),污辱”。很明显只有breach才能与walls搭配。

74.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】连接词(主语从句)

【考点剖析】虽然wherewhat都能作为主语从句的连接词,但只有what能做call的宾语。

75.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】逻辑衔接

【考点剖析】这一句叙述了一些人对基因革命的评价太多所导致的结果,所以用so that作为连接词。

76.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】skin“皮肤”;muscle“肌肉”;organ“器官”;tissue“组织”。tissue culture(组织培养)是生物学上专有的名词,与cloning是并列关系。

77.   【正确答案】B

【考点类型】修饰限定

【考点剖析】resembling“相似的”;identical“同一的,同样的”;similar“近似的,相似的”;alike“(常作表语)相同,相似”。alike只能作表语,排除;此外,其余三个选项中,能被perfectly修饰的只有identical

78.   【正确答案】C

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】difficulty“困难,障碍”;height“高度”;issue“论点,问题”;goal“目标”。所选词是对接下来的such as the effects that they may have on us and the environment的一个描述,这是一个问题,所以选issue;此外,从动宾搭配的角度来说,可以作为raise宾语的也只有issue

79.   【正确答案】D

【考点类型】动宾搭配

【考点剖析】spot“斑点,污点,场所”;scheme“安排,计划,方案”;deadline“底线,截至时间”;era“年代,时代”。fly into a new era含义为进入一个新时代,其他选项都不能作为fly into的宾语。

80.   【正确答案】A

【考点类型】语义衔接

【考点剖析】outcome“结果,后果”;mystery“神秘,神秘事物”;navigation“航行,导航”;destination“目的地”。既然前面指出是blindly(盲目地),那么对可能的后果是知之甚少的;所以应选A

Paper Two试卷二(60 minutes

Part Error Detection and Correction

81.   【正确答案】D,改为“themselves”。

【句子翻译】由于很多人不能把他们的企业看作一独立的统一体,所以不能把他们自己和公司区分开。

【考点类型】反身代词

【考点剖析】这里many people是无法区分他们自己和自己的公司而非别人,应使用反身代词来使指代一致。

【考点扩展】反身代词简介

反身代词是一种表示反射或强调的代词。它由第一人称、第二人称形容词性物主代词和第三人称人称代词宾格加词尾selfselves构成。反身代词的含义是:通过反身代词指代主语,使施动者把动作形式反射到施动者自己身上。因此,反身代词与它所指代的名词或代词形成互指关系,在人称、性质、数量上保持一致。反身代词可用作动词宾语、介词宾语、表语或同位语等。比如:Little Albert is only fourbut he can feed himselfwash himself and dress himself. 小艾尔波特才四岁,但他已经能自己吃饭、洗脸和穿衣了(反身代词作动词宾语)。

82.   【正确答案】C,改为“must have witnessed”。

【句子翻译】当我看着这块地毯时,我希望它能开口说话,因为它见证了过去十年间的许多趣事。

【考点类型】虚拟语气

【考点剖析】I wished的事情是不可能发生的,所以要用虚拟语气,推测过去已经发生的事情,应该用must have done的结构。

【考点扩展】wish + 虚拟语气

wish + 主语 + 虚拟过去时表示对目前情况的遗憾。比如,He wished he knew the address. 他多希望他知道那个地址。相当于He was sorry he didnt know the address. 他感到遗憾他不知道那个地址。wishthat+ 主语 + 过去完成时表示对过去情况的遗憾。I wish thatI hadnt spent so much money. 我要没花掉那么多钱就好了。相当于Im sorry I spent so much money. 真后悔自己花掉了那么多钱。

83.   【正确答案】A,改为“is”。

【句子翻译】20年的牢狱生活对那一行为而言是一种荒谬和严苛的惩罚,毕竟就那一行为当事双方已经达成了一致。

【考点类型】数的一致

【考点剖析】表时间、距离、钱数的复数名词 + 单数名词

【考点扩展】几种特殊结构数的一致

1 more than one + 单数名词 + 单数动词;而more + 复形名词 + than one + 复数动词。比如:More members than one have proposed against the proposal. 反对这项提议的会员不止一个。

2 a + 单数名词 + or two + 单数动词。比如:A servant or two was to accompany them. 一个或两个仆人会去陪他们。而one or two + 复形名词 + 复数动词。比如:one or two reasons were suggested. 提出一两条理由。

3 either / neither / not only + 名词 + or / nor / but also + 名词的结构要求动词一般应与or / nor / but also后的名词一致。比如:Neither he nor they are mistaken. 他和他们都错了。

4 名词 + with / as well as + 名词结构要求动词一般与第一个名词一致。比如:I as well as they am ready to help you.我和他们都准备帮你。

5 a pair / group of + 复形名词 + 单数动词;而a lot / a number of / plenty / most of + 名词结构要求动词和名词的数形一致。比如:This group of chemicals behaves in the same way. 这一组化合物起着同样的作用。

84.   【正确答案】B,改为“paid attention to”。

【句子翻译】直到20世纪70年代早期,这个聪明的办法才被技术人员注意到。

【考点类型】惯用短语

【考点剖析】pay attention to + n. / + doing表示“注意”。

85.   【正确答案】A,改为“remaining”。

【句子翻译】世界上保留下来的热带雨林正以极快的速度被破坏,以至于照目前的趋势发展下去,到本世纪中叶,只会剩下那些最难以进入的。

【考点类型】修饰限定

【考点剖析】remain为不及物动词,不能用作被动语态,也不能用过去分词作定语。

【考点扩展】过去分词与现在分词的比较

一般来说,现在分词表主动意义,过去分词表被动意义。比如:an interesting book“一本有趣的书”;an interested reader“一个感兴趣的读者”。许多过去分词都是来自及物动词,但也有不少过去分词来自不及物动词,故无被动的含义。比如:advanced“先进的”;vanished“消失了的”。用作定语或表语时,现在分词表示动作未完成,过去分词则表示已完成。比如:developing country“发展中国家”;developed country“发达国家”。

86.   【正确答案】D,改为“that”。

【句子翻译】农民知道整个人类似乎都已经忘了的一些事情,即我们星球上生命资源并不是无穷无尽的。

【考点类型】句子结构

【考点剖析】forgotten后面跟的是一个宾语从句,它并不缺少时间状语,所以应用that而非when作为连接词。

【考点扩展】when引导的宾语从句

比如,Do you know when they are coming?你知道他们什么时候来吗?

87.   【正确答案】B,改为“I”。

【句子翻译】我住的公寓根本就见不到阳光,因此花盆里也不可能种任何东西。

【考点类型】指代一致

【考点剖析】主句和从句都是都自身居住状况的描述,所以主语应该都用I

88.   【正确答案】D,改为“that”。

【句子翻译】我喜欢看托尼冲浪是因为他冲浪时的姿态优美。

【考点类型】句子结构

【考点剖析】本句的结构为The reason why ... is that ...

【考点扩展】why作为关系副词在定语从句中作原因状语,其先行词只有reason。有时why可以省去或用that替代。比如:The reason that he died was lack of medical care. 他死于缺乏治疗。在The reason why ... is that ... 的结构中,why相当于for which,而that引导的是一个表语从句。比如,The reason why he failed was that he was too lazy. 他失败的原因是他太懒惰了。

89.   【正确答案】A,改为“had he arrived”。

【句子翻译】他一到办公室,电话铃声就接连不断。

【考点类型】句子时态

【考点剖析】hardly ... when...固定搭配表示“一……就……”,hardly后面用过去完成时。

【考点扩展】hardly作为副词

hardly作为副词表示“几乎不,简直不”,常与anyeverat all以及情态动词can连用。比如:It hardly rained at all last summer.去年夏天没怎么下雨。hardly anything“简直没什么东西”。hardly ... when“一……就……”(hardly放在句首要倒装)。比如:Hardly had she reached there when it began to rain.她刚到那儿就下雨了。

90.   【正确答案】C,改为“it takes”。

【句子翻译】他们是新来的,还不知道在这里开办企业需办什么手续。

【考点类型】句子语序

【考点剖析】从句一般用陈述语序。

Part Translation

Section A

1.    Another kind of distinction that can be made among works of art is whether they were intended as objects to be looked at or to be used.

【结构分析】这是一个宾语从句。is 后面的句子是由whether引导作宾语。主语是another kind of distinction,但主语带了一个定语从句,由that引导修饰distinction.

【词义推敲】distinction 对比,区分

intend 打算,想要

object 物体,客体

【参考译文】另一种区分艺术品的方法是看它们是作为物品来观赏还是来使用。

2.    The fine artssuch as painting and sculptureinvolve the production of works to be seen and experienced on an abstract level.

【结构分析】这是一个简单句,主语the fine artssuch as 是举例以说明主语,谓语involve,以 to引导的不定式作状语来修饰宾语the production of works.

【词义推敲】the fine arts 美术

sculpture 雕塑;ice sculpture冰雕

abstract 抽象的;concrete具体的

【参考译文】精湛的艺术如绘画、雕塑,涉及作品的创作,这些作品要从一个抽象的层面上来观赏和体验。

3.    Pieces of fine art may evoke emotional or spiritual responses in us.

【结构分析】这是一个非常简单的句子。直译就可以了。

【词义推敲】evoke  引起或唤起(感情、记忆等)

emotional 情感的,易激动的

spiritual 精神的

response 答复,反应

【参考译文】一件件的美术品可以引起我们情感或精神上的共鸣。

4.    Those who love the fine arts feel that these responses are very valuablefor they expand our awareness of the great richness of life itself.

【结构分析】这是个复合句。其主语是一个同位语从句,those后接who形成同位语,谓语为 feelfeel后面以that引导一个宾语从句做宾语。介词that引导一个句子来说明原因。

【词义推敲】valuable 贵重的,值钱的

awareness 意识

richness 富裕,丰富

【参考译文】那些热爱美术的人觉得这些共鸣是非常宝贵的,因为它们会增强我们对生活本身丰富内涵的感悟。

Section B

1.    1718世纪,中国的艺术、建筑学以及哲学,在西方很受欣赏。

【结构分析】这是个简单句子。翻译时采取直译的方法。

【词义推敲】建筑 architecture 建筑师architect

哲学 philosophy 哲学家 philosopher

欣赏 appreciate

【参考译文】In the 17th  century and 18th centurythe Chinese artarchitectwre and philosophy were much appreciated in the west.

2.    此外,中国的丝绸、茶叶和瓷器(Porcelain)在西方也备受欢迎,并在一定程度上改变了许多西方人的生活方式。

【结构分析】首先分析句子成分,主语是中国的丝绸、茶叶和瓷器。也备受欢迎,然后改变了生活方式,所以有两个谓语。

【词义推敲】丝绸 silk

瓷器 porcelain

生活方式 lifestyle

【参考译文】In additionChinese silk and porcelain also attracted many westerners attentionand to some extentchanged their lifestyles.

3.    进入20世纪后期,西方人再一次转向中国文化。

【结构分析】这是个简单句,首先是时间状语,进入20世纪后期,然后是西方人怎么样。

【词义推敲】转向 turn to

【参考译文】At the end of 20th centurywestern people once again cast their attention to the Chinese culture.

4.    他们除了喜欢中国菜肴外,还学习汉语,尝试中医药,练习中国武术,观看功夫电影。

【结构分析】这是一个并列句。主语是他们,然后学习什么,尝试什么,练习什么,观看什么,所以翻译时可用相对应的并列结构。

【词义推敲】菜肴 dishfoodcuisine

中医药 Chinese medicine

中国武术 Chinese martial arts

功夫电影 kungfu film

【参考译文】Besides Chinese foodthey also liked learning Chinesetried Chinese medicinepracting Chinese martial artswatched kungfu films.

Part Guided Writing

参考范文:

After reading this instructive storys we can learn that there is no goalthere is no lifeand we should set new goals for life in different periods of life. Otherwisessad story such as the disabled man mentioned in the story would happen. Only with the renewed goalswe can improve ourselves step by stepand make our life more colorful and meaningful.

Certainlyeveryone has his own goal of life. I have mine too. My goal is to become a famous surgeon. Ill work hard to achieve this goal by learning and practicing moreso that I can make myself more knowledgeable and skillfuland use them to benefit my patients. If I have achieved this goalI would set up a new one. ThenIll do my best to achieve it.

Thereforeeveryone should set different goals in different periods of lifeand try his best to achieve it. In this waywe will live happily.

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